Eric Joseph Hall

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Copyright © 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society. The advent of computed tomography (ct) has revolutionized diagnostic radiology. Since the inception of CT in the 1970s, its use has increased rapidly. It is estimated that more than 62 million CT scans per year are currently obtained in the United States, including at least 4 million for children.1 By its(More)
OBJECTIVE In light of the rapidly increasing frequency of pediatric CT examinations, the purpose of our study was to assess the lifetime cancer mortality risks attributable to radiation from pediatric CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS Organ doses as a function of age-at-diagnosis were estimated for common CT examinations, and estimated attributable lifetime(More)
High doses of ionizing radiation clearly produce deleterious consequences in humans, including, but not exclusively, cancer induction. At very low radiation doses the situation is much less clear, but the risks of low-dose radiation are of societal importance in relation to issues as varied as screening tests for cancer, the future of nuclear power,(More)
Information concerning radiation-induced malignancies comes from the A-bomb survivors and from medically exposed individuals, including second cancers in radiation therapy patients. The A-bomb survivors show an excess incidence of carcinomas in tissues such as the gastrointestinal tract, breast, thyroid, and bladder, which is linear with dose up to about(More)
Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) allows dose to be concentrated in the tumor volume while sparing normal tissues. However, the downside to IMRT is the potential to increase the number of radiation-induced second cancers. The reasons for this potential are more monitor units and, therefore, a larger total-body dose because of leakage radiation(More)
BACKGROUND In the treatment of prostate carcinoma, radiotherapy and surgery are common choices of comparable efficacy; thus a realistic comparison of the potential long term sequelae, such as the risk of second malignancy, may be of relevance to treatment choice. METHODS Data regarding the rate of incidence from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End(More)
Ever since the discovery of X-rays was made by Röntgen more than a hundred years ago, it has always been accepted that the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation such as mutation and carcinogenesis are attributable mainly to direct damage to DNA. Although evidence based on microdosimetric estimation in support of a bystander effect appears to be(More)
PURPOSE To investigate whether current fractionation and brachytherapy protraction schemes for the treatment of prostatic cancer with radiation are optimal, or could be improved. METHODS AND MATERIALS We analyzed two mature data sets on radiotherapeutic tumor control for prostate cancer, one using EBRT and the other permanent seed implants, to extract the(More)
That irradiated cells affect their unirradiated ‘bystander’ neighbors is evidenced by reports of increased clonogenic mortality, genomic instability, and expression of DNA-repair genes in the bystander cell populations. The mechanisms underlying the bystander effect are obscure, but genomic instability suggests DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) may be(More)
Previous studies have shown that the eyes of ATM heterozygous mice exposed to low-LET radiation (X-rays) are significantly more susceptible to the development of cataracts than are those of wildtype mice. The findings, as well as others, run counter to the assumption underpinning current radiation safety guidelines, that individuals are all equally(More)