Learn More
The cricket paralysis virus (CrPV), a member of the CrPV-like virus family, contains a single positive-stranded RNA genome that encodes two non-overlapping open reading frames separated by a short intergenic region (IGR). The CrPV IGR contains an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) that directs the expression of structural proteins. Unlike previously(More)
The Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination gene, tra-2, is translationally regulated by elements in the 3'-untranslated region called TGEs. TGEs govern the translation of mRNAs in both invertebrates and vertebrates, indicating that this is a highly conserved mechanism for controlling gene activity. A factor called DRF, found in worm extracts binds the(More)
Internal initiation of protein synthesis in eukaryotes is accomplished by recruitment of ribosomes to structured internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs), which are located in certain viral and cellular messenger RNAs. An IRES element in cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) can directly assemble 80S ribosomes in the absence of canonical initiation factors and(More)
Recognition of lipids by proteins is important for their targeting and activation in many signaling pathways, but the mechanisms that regulate such interactions are largely unknown. Here, we found that binding of proteins to the ubiquitous signaling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) depended on intracellular pH and the protonation state of its phosphate(More)
Metabolic adaptation is essential for cell survival during nutrient deprivation. We report that eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), which is activated by AMP-kinase (AMPK), confers cell survival under acute nutrient depletion by blocking translation elongation. Tumor cells exploit this pathway to adapt to nutrient deprivation by reactivating the(More)
Cricket Paralysis virus (CrPV) is a member of the Dicistroviridae family of RNA viruses, which infect a broad range of insect hosts, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila has emerged as an effective system for studying innate immunity because of its powerful genetic techniques and the high degree of gene and pathway conservation.(More)
Cellular stress such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, hypoxia, and viral infection activates an integrated stress response, which includes the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) to inhibit overall protein synthesis. Paradoxically, this leads to translation of a subset of mRNAs, like transcription factor ATF4, which in(More)
Standard microarrays measure mRNA abundance, not mRNA synthesis, and therefore cannot identify the mechanisms that regulate gene expression. We have developed a method to overcome this limitation by using the salvage enzyme uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) from the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. T. gondii UPRT has been well characterized because of its(More)
Earlier work indicated that Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) messenger transcripts, and not the (anti)genomic RNAs, are targeted by the RNA silencing machinery. Here, the predicted AU-rich hairpin (HP) structure encoded by the intergenic region (IGR) of the TSWV S RNA, and present at the 3' end of viral mRNAs, was analyzed as a target and inducer for RNA(More)
This paper addresses the problem of building natural language based grammars and language models for directory assistance applications that use automatic speech recognition. As input, one is given an electronic version of a standard phone book, and the output is a grammar or language model that will accept all the ways in which one might ask for a(More)