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The Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination gene, tra-2, is translationally regulated by elements in the 3'-untranslated region called TGEs. TGEs govern the translation of mRNAs in both invertebrates and vertebrates, indicating that this is a highly conserved mechanism for controlling gene activity. A factor called DRF, found in worm extracts binds the(More)
Internal initiation of protein synthesis in eukaryotes is accomplished by recruitment of ribosomes to structured internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs), which are located in certain viral and cellular messenger RNAs. An IRES element in cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) can directly assemble 80S ribosomes in the absence of canonical initiation factors and(More)
The cricket paralysis virus (CrPV), a member of the CrPV-like virus family, contains a single positive-stranded RNA genome that encodes two non-overlapping open reading frames separated by a short intergenic region (IGR). The CrPV IGR contains an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) that directs the expression of structural proteins. Unlike previously(More)
Recognition of lipids by proteins is important for their targeting and activation in many signaling pathways, but the mechanisms that regulate such interactions are largely unknown. Here, we found that binding of proteins to the ubiquitous signaling lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) depended on intracellular pH and the protonation state of its phosphate(More)
The cricket paralysis virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) can, in the absence of canonical initiation factors and initiator tRNA (Met-tRNAi), occupy the ribosomal P-site and assemble 80S ribosomes. Here we show that the IRES assembles mRNA-80S ribosome complexes by recruitment of 60S subunits to preformed IRES-40S complexes. Addition of eukaryotic(More)
Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic cytosolic aggregates composed of ribonucleoproteins that are induced during cellular stress when protein synthesis is inhibited. The function of SGs is poorly understood, but they are thought to be sites for reorganizing mRNA and protein. Several viruses can modulate SG formation, suggesting that SGs have an impact on virus(More)
Standard microarrays measure mRNA abundance, not mRNA synthesis, and therefore cannot identify the mechanisms that regulate gene expression. We have developed a method to overcome this limitation by using the salvage enzyme uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRT) from the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. T. gondii UPRT has been well characterized because of its(More)
Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic cytosolic aggregates containing messenger ribonucleoproteins and target poly-adenylated (A)-mRNA. A key component of SGs is Ras-GAP SH3 domain binding protein-1 (G3BP1), which in part mediates protein-protein and protein-RNA interactions. SGs are modulated during infection by several viruses, however, the function and(More)
Cricket Paralysis virus (CrPV) is a member of the Dicistroviridae family of RNA viruses, which infect a broad range of insect hosts, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Drosophila has emerged as an effective system for studying innate immunity because of its powerful genetic techniques and the high degree of gene and pathway conservation.(More)
Cellular stress such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, hypoxia, and viral infection activates an integrated stress response, which includes the phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) to inhibit overall protein synthesis. Paradoxically, this leads to translation of a subset of mRNAs, like transcription factor ATF4, which in(More)