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The primary circulating form of vitamin D, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D [25(OH)D], is associated with multiple medical outcomes, including rickets, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis and cancer. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 4501 persons of European ancestry drawn from five cohorts, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the gene(More)
BACKGROUND Large-scale, prospective cohort studies have played a critical role in discovering factors that contribute to variability in cancer risk in human populations. Epidemiologists and volunteers at the American Cancer Society (ACS) were among the first to establish such cohorts, beginning in the early 1950s and continuing through the present, and(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic evidence indicates that aspirin use is associated with reduced risks of colon cancer and possibly several other cancers, including prostate and breast cancers. Recent results from the Women's Health Study randomized trial indicate that long-term use of low-dose aspirin (100 mg every other day) does not substantially reduce cancer(More)
Clinical guidelines for prophylactic aspirin use currently only consider the cardiovascular benefits of aspirin, weighed against the potential harm from aspirin-induced bleeding. Daily aspirin use has been convincingly shown to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and recurrence of adenomatous polyps, but in average-risk populations, these benefits alone do(More)
HMG-coA reductase inhibitors, commonly known as statins, account for the great majority of cholesterol-lowering drug use. However, little is known about the association between long-term statin use and incidence of most types of cancers. We examined the association between long-term use of cholesterol-lowering drugs, predominantly statins, and the incidence(More)
Body weight and height have both been associated consistently with postmenopausal breast cancer but less consistently with prostate cancer. The present study examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI), height, and death from prostate cancer in two large American Cancer Society cohorts. Men in the study were selected from the male participants(More)
BACKGROUND Angiogenesis is required for development and progression of prostate cancer. Potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes important in prostate angiogenesis (VEGF, HIF1A, and NOS3) have previously been associated with risk or severity of prostate cancer. METHODS Prostate cancer cases (n = 1,425) and controls (n = 1,453)(More)
One previous study has suggested that diabetes may decrease risk of prostate cancer but only several years after diagnosis of diabetes. The authors examined the role of timing of diabetes diagnosis in relation to risk of prostate cancer among men in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort. Participants in the study completed a mailed questionnaire(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); it is not clear if this association varies by sex or other factors. Insulin use might also be associated with CRC risk. We investigated associations of type 2 DM and insulin use with CRC risk. METHODS The Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition(More)
CONTEXT Consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with colorectal cancer in many but not all epidemiological studies; few studies have examined risk in relation to long-term meat intake or the association of meat with rectal cancer. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between recent and long-term meat consumption and the risk of incident(More)