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The genome organization and expression strategy of the newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) were predicted using recently published genome sequences. Fourteen putative open reading frames were identified, 12 of which were predicted to be expressed from a nested set of eight subgenomic mRNAs. The synthesis of these mRNAs(More)
This review focuses on the monophyletic group of animal RNA viruses united in the order Nidovirales. The order includes the distantly related coronaviruses, toroviruses, and roniviruses, which possess the largest known RNA genomes (from 26 to 32kb) and will therefore be called "large" nidoviruses in this review. They are compared with their arterivirus(More)
Two adjacent papainlike cysteine protease (PCP) domains, PCP alpha and PCP beta, were identified in the N-terminal region of the open reading frame 1a replicase proteins of the arteriviruses porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus. The replicase of the related virus equine arteritis virus contains only(More)
The nucleotide sequence of the genome of equine arteritis virus (EAV) was determined from a set of overlapping cDNA clones and was found to contain eight open reading frames (ORFs). ORFs 2 through 7 are expressed from six 3'-coterminal subgenomic mRNAs, which are transcribed from the 3'-terminal quarter of the viral genome. A number of these ORFs are(More)
Arteriviruses are positive-stranded RNA viruses that infect mammals. They can cause persistent or asymptomatic infections, but also acute disease associated with a respiratory syndrome, abortion or lethal haemorrhagic fever. During the past two decades, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and, to a lesser extent, equine arteritis(More)
Our knowledge about the structure and function of the nonstructural proteins (nsps) encoded by the arterivirus replicase gene has advanced in recent years. The continued characterization of the nsps of the arterivirus prototype equine arteritis virus has not only corroborated several important functional predictions, but also revealed various novel features(More)
Many positive-stranded RNA viruses use subgenomic mRNAs to express part of their genetic information. To produce structural and accessory proteins, members of the order Nidovirales (corona-, toro-, arteri- and roniviruses) generate a 3' co-terminal nested set of at least three and often seven to nine mRNAs. Coronavirus and arterivirus subgenomic transcripts(More)
A novel coronavirus is the causative agent of the current epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Coronaviruses are exceptionally large RNA viruses and employ complex regulatory mechanisms to express their genomes. Here, we determined the sequence of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), isolate Frankfurt 1, and characterized key RNA elements and(More)