Eric J. Snijder

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The genome organization and expression strategy of the newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) were predicted using recently published genome sequences. Fourteen putative open reading frames were identified, 12 of which were predicted to be expressed from a nested set of eight subgenomic mRNAs. The synthesis of these mRNAs(More)
IP: 54.191.40.80 On: Sun, 20 Aug 2017 08:42:34 Journal of General Virology (2000), 81, 853–879. Printed in Great Britain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(More)
This review focuses on the monophyletic group of animal RNA viruses united in the order Nidovirales. The order includes the distantly related coronaviruses, toroviruses, and roniviruses, which possess the largest known RNA genomes (from 26 to 32kb) and will therefore be called "large" nidoviruses in this review. They are compared with their arterivirus(More)
The type I interferon (IFN) response protects cells from viral infection by inducing hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), some of which encode direct antiviral effectors. Recent screening studies have begun to catalogue ISGs with antiviral activity against several RNA and DNA viruses. However, antiviral ISG specificity across multiple distinct(More)
Positive-strand RNA viruses, a large group including human pathogens such as SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV), replicate in the cytoplasm of infected host cells. Their replication complexes are commonly associated with modified host cell membranes. Membrane structures supporting viral RNA synthesis range from distinct spherular membrane invaginations to more(More)
The RNA replication complexes of mammalian positive-stranded RNA viruses are generally associated with (modified) intracellular membranes, a feature thought to be important for creating an environment suitable for viral RNA synthesis, recruitment of host components, and possibly evasion of host defense mechanisms. Here, using a panel of replicase-specific(More)
A novel coronavirus is the causative agent of the current epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Coronaviruses are exceptionally large RNA viruses and employ complex regulatory mechanisms to express their genomes. Here, we determined the sequence of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), isolate Frankfurt 1, and characterized key RNA elements and(More)
Many positive-stranded RNA viruses use subgenomic mRNAs to express part of their genetic information. To produce structural and accessory proteins, members of the order Nidovirales (corona-, toro-, arteri- and roniviruses) generate a 3' co-terminal nested set of at least three and often seven to nine mRNAs. Coronavirus and arterivirus subgenomic transcripts(More)
Ubiquitin (Ub) and interferon-stimulated gene product 15 (ISG15) reversibly conjugate to proteins and mediate important innate antiviral responses. The ovarian tumor (OTU) domain represents a superfamily of predicted proteases found in eukaryotic, bacterial, and viral proteins, some of which have Ub-deconjugating activity. We show that the OTU(More)