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Previously, we published a video-based objective rating scale of tics that met reliability and validity criteria for measurement of five domains of tic disability. In the original form, the scale's metric properties did not permit internal comparison of each of the five domains of impairment and did not provide a total score for use as a primary outcome(More)
The objective of this study was to compare efficacy, safety, and duration of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) and type B (BoNT-B) in toxin-naïve cervical dystonia (CD) subjects. BoNT-naïve CD subjects were randomized to BoNT-A or BoNT-B and evaluated in a double-blind trial at baseline and every 4-weeks following one treatment. The primary measure was the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (vCSF) alpha-tocopherol levels in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients can be increased by oral alpha-tocopherol supplementation and whether vCSF levels are linearly related to plasma alpha-tocopherol levels. BACKGROUND In spite of its putative neuroprotective properties, alpha-tocopherol has failed(More)
The first-line treatment for cervical dystonia (CD) is botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A), which has been established as a highly effective and well-tolerated therapy. However, this treatment is also complex and challenging to apply in clinical practice. Approximately 20% of patients discontinue therapy due to treatment failure, adverse effects, and other(More)
In a series of consecutively randomized outpatients who had Parkinson's disease (PD), we examined the association of three behaviors: sleep fragmentation, altered dream phenomena, and hallucinations/illusions. Using a log-linear model methodology, we tested the independence of each behavior. Sixty-two percent of the subjects had sleep fragmentation, 48% had(More)
We report the results of nine patients with inclusion body myositis treated with intravenous immunoglobulin in an open-label uncontrolled study. None of our patients improved on objective manual muscle testing or functional disability scores. One patient developed mild neutropenia, complicating the intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. Our results do not(More)
OBJECTIVE To monitor the evolution of hallucinations over 4 years in a stratified sample of patients with PD. METHODS Using a modified version of the Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) Thought Disorder question, the authors stratified patients into five baseline behavioral groups. They recruited up to 20 patients for each group to participate in sequential(More)
This study examined the relationship between deficits in color and contrast discrimination and visual hallucinations (VH) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and normal visual acuity. Thirty-five nondemented and nonpsychotic PD patients with normal visual acuity and without major ophthalmologic disease were interviewed twice and divided into two(More)
In five nondemented Parkinson's disease patients with daily visual hallucinations, we tested whether high-dose IV levodopa (LD) infusions precipitated hallucinations. Two infusion paradigms were studied, each with 1.5-mg/kg hourly dose for 4 hours--steady infusion and pulse infusion of the full hour dose over 5 minutes each hour. In both protocols, plasma(More)
OBJECTIVE To define the long-term outcome in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) using objective rating measures. BACKGROUND Previous historical studies suggest spontaneous improvement of tic symptoms after adolescence, but objective longitudinal data are limited. METHODS The authors reviewed all videotapes in their database (1978 through 1991) of(More)