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The discovery of the ability of the nervous system to communicate through "public" circuits with other systems of the body is attributed to Ernst and Berta Scharrer, who described the neurosecretory process in 1928. Indeed, the immune system has been identified as another important neuroendocrine target tissue. Opioid peptides are involved in this(More)
STUDY DESIGN Prospective study of 5 spine surgeons rating 71 clinical cases of thoracolumbar spinal injuries using the Thoracolumbar Injury Severity Score (TLISS) and then re-rating the cases in a different order 1 month later. OBJECTIVE To determine the reliability of the TLISS system. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA The TLISS is a recently introduced(More)
Certain functional interactions between the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems are mediated by cytokines. The pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were among the first to be recognized in this regard. A modulator of these cytokines, IL-10, has been shown to have a wide range of activities in the immune system;(More)
It is well appreciated that a number of things (e.g., various insults, chemotherapeutic agents, radiation) may lead to the release of serotonin from the enterochromaffin of the gastrointestinal tract. Released serotonin may then bind to certain 5-HT3 receptors and promote nausea/vomiting. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may ameliorate nausea/vomiting in a number(More)
There exists a bidirectional regulatory circuit between the nervous and immune systems. This regulation has been shown to be mediated in part through neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. Both systems have receptors for both types of signal molecules. The nervous system has receptors for cytokines and it also synthesizes cytokines. The immune system(More)
Interferons constitute the earliest immune response against viral infection. They elicit antiviral effects as well as multiple biological responses involved in cell growth regulation and immune activation. Because the interferon-induced cellular antiviral response is the primary defense mechanism against viral infection, many viruses have evolved strategies(More)
Human leukocyte interferon (hIFN-alpha) preparations contain immunologically and biologically recognizable endorphin and corticotropin-like (ACTH-like) activities. The ACTH bioactivity was demonstrable only after pepsin or acid treatment. Highly purified hIFN-alpha was composed of two molecular species of interferon (18,500 and 23,000 daltons). Endorphin(More)
Interleukin-10 (IL-10), originally designated a cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor, inhibits the synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor by stimulated human and mouse monocytes/macrophages; these cytokines are involved in the regulation of sleep. To determine if IL-10 reduces spontaneous sleep, we injected murine(More)
Evidence supporting the concept that the parasitic trematode Schistosoma mansoni may escape immune reactions from its vertebrate (man) or invertebrate (the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata) hosts by using signal molecules it has in common with these hosts was obtained by the following experiments. The presence of immunoactive proopiomelanocortin(More)
Interferons (IFN) are potent components of the innate immune response to microbial infection. The genes for type I IFN (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) are rapidly induced in response to viral infection through a mechanism that involves latent cellular transcription factors that are activated in response to innate recognition of viral components. IFN regulatory(More)