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The practice of tumor diagnosis depends largely on visual interpretation of gross pathological and histological specimens together with limited biochemical data. These visual features, as well as immunohistochemical staining patterns, are reflective of the genes expressed within the tumor cell. By measuring gene expression directly, there is the potential(More)
BACKGROUND Correlation of risk factors with genomic data promises to provide specific treatment for individual patients, and needs interpretation of complex, multivariate patterns in gene expression data, as well as assessment of their ability to improve clinical predictions. We aimed to predict nodal metastatic states and relapse for breast cancer(More)
High-density DNA microarrays measure expression of large numbers of genes in one assay. The ability to find underlying structure in complex gene expression data sets and rigorously test association of that structure with biological conditions is essential to developing multi-faceted views of the gene activity that defines cellular phenotype. We sought to(More)
We present a hierarchical method to predict protein tertiary structure models from sequence. We start with complete enumeration of conformations using a simple tetrahedral lattice model. We then build conformations with increasing detail, and at each step select a subset of conformations using empirical energy functions with increasing complexity. After(More)
A subset of patients who have undergone coronary angioplasty develop restenosis, a vessel renarrowing characterized by excessive proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Of 60 human restenosis lesions examined, 23 (38 percent) were found to have accumulated high amounts of the tumor suppressor protein p53, and this correlated with the presence of human(More)
Central to the ab initio protein folding problem is the development of an energy function for which the correct native structure has a lower energy than all other conformations. Existing potentials of mean force typically rely extensively on database-derived contact frequencies or knowledge of three-dimensional structural information in order to be(More)
The last stage of protein folding, the "endgame," involves the ordering of amino acid side-chains into a well defined and closely packed configuration. We review a number of topics related to this process. We first describe how the observed packing in protein crystal structures is measured. Such measurements show that the protein interior is packed(More)
The problem of protein tertiary structure prediction from primary sequence can be separated into two subproblems: generation of a library of possible folds and specification of a best fold given the library. A distance geometry procedure based on random pairwise metrization with good sampling properties was used to generate a library of 500 possible(More)
A central challenge in human computation is in understanding how to design task environments that effectively attract participants and coordinate the problem solving process. In this paper, we consider a common problem that requesters face on Amazon Mechanical Turk: how should a task be designed so as to induce good output from workers? In posting a task, a(More)