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The practices of systems engineering are believed to have high value in the development of complex systems. Heuristic wisdom is that an increase in the quantity and quality of systems engineering (SE) can reduce project schedule while increasing product quality. This paper explores recent theoretical and statistical information concerning this heuristic(More)
This paper presents quantitative results on the return on investment of systems engineering (SE-ROI) from an analysis of the 161 software projects in the COCOMO II database. The analysis shows that, after normalizing for the effects of other cost drivers, the cost difference between projects doing a minimal job of software systems engineering—as measured by(More)
A goal of systems development is to produce enduringly valuable product systems—i.e., systems that are valuable when delivered to their users and which continue to be attractive to their stakeholders over time. However, quantifying the life-cycle value (LCV) provided by a system has proven elusive. In this paper, we propose an approach to quantifying a(More)
Many systems of systems (SoS) occur today through the collaboration of multiple stakeholders, without any clear authority or direction at the SoS level. Examples include a supply chain, an airport, and the Internet. Because of the uncontrolled interactions, such a SoS exhibits complexity behaviors such as reflexivity, emergence, self-organization, and(More)
The cutting edge in systems development today is in the area of systems of systems, (SoS) large networks of interrelated systems that are developed and managed separately, but that also perform collective activities. Such large systems typically involve constituent systems operating with different life cycles, often with uncoordinated evolution. The result(More)
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