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DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) are markers of regulatory DNA and have underpinned the discovery of all classes of cis-regulatory elements including enhancers, promoters, insulators, silencers and locus control regions. Here we present the first extensive map of human DHSs identified through genome-wide profiling in 125 diverse cell and tissue types. We(More)
Genetic variation among individual humans occurs on many different scales, ranging from gross alterations in the human karyotype to single nucleotide changes. Here we explore variation on an intermediate scale--particularly insertions, deletions and inversions affecting from a few thousand to a few million base pairs. We employed a clone-based method to(More)
We have developed technologies for creating saturating libraries of sequence-defined transposon insertion mutants in which each strain is maintained. Phenotypic analysis of such libraries should provide a virtually complete identification of nonessential genes required for any process for which a suitable screen can be devised. The approach was applied to(More)
Inversions, deletions and insertions are important mediators of disease and disease susceptibility. We systematically compared the human genome reference sequence with a second genome (represented by fosmid paired-end sequences) to detect intermediate-sized structural variants >8 kb in length. We identified 297 sites of structural variation: 139 insertions,(More)
Genome-wide association studies have identified many noncoding variants associated with common diseases and traits. We show that these variants are concentrated in regulatory DNA marked by deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) hypersensitive sites (DHSs). Eighty-eight percent of such DHSs are active during fetal development and are enriched in variants associated(More)
Regulatory factor binding to genomic DNA protects the underlying sequence from cleavage by DNase I, leaving nucleotide-resolution footprints. Using genomic DNase I footprinting across 41 diverse cell and tissue types, we detected 45 million transcription factor occupancy events within regulatory regions, representing differential binding to 8.4 million(More)
Human chromosome 7 has historically received prominent attention in the human genetics community, primarily related to the search for the cystic fibrosis gene and the frequent cytogenetic changes associated with various forms of cancer. Here we present more than 153 million base pairs representing 99.4% of the euchromatic sequence of chromosome 7, the first(More)
The laboratory mouse shares the majority of its protein-coding genes with humans, making it the premier model organism in biomedical research, yet the two mammals differ in significant ways. To gain greater insights into both shared and species-specific transcriptional and cellular regulatory programs in the mouse, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium has mapped(More)
UNLABELLED The large and growing number of genome-wide datasets highlights the need for high-performance feature analysis and data comparison methods, in addition to efficient data storage and retrieval techniques. We introduce BEDOPS, a software suite for common genomic analysis tasks which offers improved flexibility, scalability and execution time(More)
Francisella tularensis subspecies tularensis and holarctica are pathogenic to humans, whereas the two other subspecies, novicida and mediasiatica, rarely cause disease. To uncover the factors that allow subspecies tularensis and holarctica to be pathogenic to humans, we compared their genome sequences with the genome sequence of Francisella tularensis(More)