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BACKGROUND Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered to be a transitional stage between aging and Alzheimer disease (AD). OBJECTIVE To determine whether MCI represents early-stage AD by examining its natural history and neuropathologic basis. DESIGN A prospective clinical and psychometric study of community-living elderly volunteers, both(More)
OBJECTIVE To study differences between subjects with Alzheimer disease (AD) and cognitively intact control subjects, with respect to brain histologic markers of AD, and the relationship of those markers in the AD group to severity of dementia, age at death, sex, and apolipoprotein E genotype. SETTING Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research(More)
We compare clinicopathologic data from 10 subjects identified in the very mild stage of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type with findings from similar studies in four cognitively normal subjects. We based the diagnosis of very mild dementia in the 10 subjects on informant reports and the judgment of experienced clinicians. Deficits of some psychometric(More)
There is a growing need for methods for measuring and staging the natural history of dementia of the Alzheimer type. One instrument, designed with that purpose in mind, is the Washington University Clinical Dementia Rating. We tested its reliability using multiple clinicians in a videotape-design study, and it proved reliable under these study conditions.
BACKGROUND Psychosis is common in patients with Alzheimer disease. While the relationship between psychosis and clinical variables has been examined frequently, few studies have examined the relationship between psychosis and the 2 major neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease: neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. We characterized the(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the earliest cognitive changes associated with the onset of dementia as well as changes associated with normal aging. DESIGN Longitudinal evaluation of participants with annual clinical and psychometric examinations for up to 15 1/2 years. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS Elderly volunteers (n = 82) enrolled with a Clinical Dementia Rating(More)
The presence of senile plaques in the neocortex of apparently nondemented elderly persons often is accepted as part of "normal" aging. Alternatively, because cerebral deposition of beta-amyloid may be a key mechanism in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the presence of beta-amyloid-containing plaques may represent very early AD. To examine the(More)
We report a longitudinal study of 16 subjects originally enrolled in the Washington University (St Louis, Mo) Memory and Aging Project with Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) of "questionable" dementia (CDR 0.5). A 0.5 rating was intended to characterize subjects in whom mild cognitive impairment due to senile dementia of the Alzheimer type was suspected but(More)
Delusions, misidentifications and hallucinations occur frequently throughout the course of senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT). Rates of psychosis among subjects with moderate to severe SDAT range from 42% to 84% in our study group; at least half of persons with SDAT with no prior psychiatric history will display psychosis at some point during the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether clinically nondemented elderly individuals with pathologically confirmed preclinical AD are characterized by cognitive decline as measured by psychometric tests before death. METHODS Psychometric performance was examined retrospectively in 14 individuals who were nondemented at time of death and grouped in accordance with(More)