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Recent studies from our laboratory suggested that, in some human colorectal tumor cell lines, sensitivity to fluorodeoxyuridine may depend upon the extent of dUTP accumulation that occurs following drug treatment and that elevation of dUTPase activity might be the basis for some instances of resistance to fluoropyrimidines. To test this model, we expressed(More)
PURPOSE In patients who undergo resection of central nervous system metastases, whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is added to reduce the rates of recurrence and neurologic death. However, the risk of late neurotoxicity has led many patients to decline WBRT. We offered adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) as an(More)
PURPOSE To analyze the failure patterns for patients with high-grade astrocytomas treated with high-dose conformal radiotherapy (CRT) using a quantitative technique to calculate the dose received by the CT- or MR-defined recurrence volume and to assess whether the final target volume margin used in the present dose escalation study requires redefinition(More)
Interest in obtaining cell lines for use in studies on the development and biochemistry of the central nervous system has motivated efforts to establish cells from primary brain cultures by the use of oncogene-transfer techniques. In previous reports, cell lines derived from astrocytes in this way have had immature or abnormal phenotypes. We have explored(More)
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) have shown promise as candidate radiosensitizers for many types of cancers, including prostate cancer. However, the mechanisms of action are not well understood. In this study, we show in prostate cancer cells that valproic acid (VPA) at low concentrations has minimal cytotoxic effects yet can significantly increase(More)
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) have shown promise as candidate radiosensitizers for many types of cancers. However, the mechanisms of action are not well understood, and whether they could sensitize multiple myeloma (MM) to radiation therapy is unclear. In this study, we show that suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) at low concentrations has(More)
Agents that inhibit histone deacetylases (HDAC inhibitors) have been shown to enhance radiation response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low, minimally cytotoxic concentrations of the HDAC inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), on radiation response of colorectal cancer cells. Cell lines LS174T and an isogenic pair of HCT116, which differed(More)
The Ugi protein inhibitor of uracil-DNA glycosylase encoded by bacteriophage PBS2 inactivates human uracil-DNA glycosylases (UDG) by forming a tight enzyme:inhibitor complex. To create human cells that are impaired for UDG activity, the human glioma U251 cell line was engineered to produce active Ugi protein. In vitro assays of crude cell extracts from(More)
Previously, we demonstrated that human breast cancer cells with progressively elevated levels of constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated erbB-2 are independent of growth factors required by normal human mammary epithelial (HME) cells for proliferation in serum-free medium. To determine whether erbB-2 overexpression alone is sufficient to confer the growth(More)
Mutations in the v gene of bacteriophage T4 are associated with a marked increase in sensitivity to killing by UV radiation at 254 nm, but not to a variety of other forms of base damage to DNA. Early studies from this laboratory provided evidence for a role of the v gene in the excision of pyrimidine dimers (PD) from DNA. Specifically, it was shown that(More)