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Vasa is a DEAD-box RNA helicase that functions in translational regulation of specific mRNAs. In many animals it is essential for germ line development and may have a more general stem cell role. Here we identify vasa in two sea urchin species and analyze the regulation of its expression. We find that vasa protein accumulates in only a subset of cells(More)
The small micromeres are multipotent cells of the sea urchin embryo that populate the coelomic pouches and contribute to various tissues of the adult (Juliano and Wessel, 2010). This lineage forms by two sequential unequal cleavages, divides only once prior to gastrulation, and accumulates several mRNAs and proteins selectively, including vasa, nanos, and(More)
With the growing popularity of Android smart phones, it is increasingly important to ensure the security of sensitive user information. A recent study found that approximately 26% of Android applications in Google Play can access personal data, such as contacts and email, and 42 percent, GPS location data [6]. While Android is known for giving the user(More)
Sexually reproducing metazoans establish a cell lineage during development that is ultimately dedicated to gamete production. Work in a variety of animals suggests that a group of conserved molecular determinants act in this germ line maintenance and function. The most universal of these genes are Vasa and Vasa-like DEAD-box RNA helicase genes. However,(More)
Vasa is a broadly conserved DEAD-box RNA helicase associated with germ line development and is expressed in multipotent cells in many animals. During embryonic development of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Vasa protein is enriched in the small micromeres despite a uniform distribution of vasa transcript. Here we show that the Vasa coding(More)
The formation of the germ line in an embryo marks a fresh round of reproductive potential. The developmental stage and location within the embryo where the primordial germ cells (PGCs) form, however, differs markedly among species. In many animals, the germ line is formed by an inherited mechanism, in which molecules made and selectively partitioned within(More)
Helicases are enzymes that can separate duplex oligonucleo-tides in a NTP-dependent fashion and are essential in all aspects of DNA and RNA metabolism. Amino acid sequence analysis identified several conserved sequence motifs in DNA and RNA helicases allowing their classification into five major groups (Super families SF1–SF5) [1]. DExD/H helicases share(More)
BACKGROUND Piwi proteins are essential for germ line development, stem cell maintenance, and more recently found to function in epigenetic and somatic gene regulation. In the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, two Piwi proteins, Seawi and Piwi-like1, have been identified, yet their functional contributions have not been reported. RESULTS Here we(More)
Embryonic development in metazoan animals involves a remarkable degree of both genetic and epigenetic regulation. Polycomb group (PcG) genes are essential for initiation and maintenance of epigenetic developmental regulation. This report identifies homologous PcG genes representing the core components of three known Polycomb repressive complexes in the sea(More)
— Analyzing Android applications for malicious behavior is an important area of research, and is made difficult, in part, by the increasingly large number of applications available for the platform. While techniques exist to perform static analysis on a large number of applications, dynamic analysis techniques are relatively limited in scale due to the(More)