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In plants, thioredoxins h are encoded by a multigenic family of genes (eight in Arabidopsis thaliana, at least five in Populus sp.). The multiplicity of these isoforms raises the question of their specificity. This review focuses on thioredoxins h in two plant models: Arabidopsis and poplar. Thioredoxins h can be divided into three different subgroups(More)
Thioredoxins (Trxs) are oxidoreductase enzymes, present in all organisms, that catalyze the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins. By applying a calibrated force to a substrate disulfide, the chemical mechanisms of Trx catalysis can be examined in detail at the single-molecule level. Here we use single-molecule force-clamp spectroscopy to explore the(More)
Fungal degradation of wood is mainly restricted to basidiomycetes, these organisms having developed complex oxidative and hydrolytic enzymatic systems. Besides these systems, wood-decaying fungi possess intracellular networks allowing them to deal with the myriad of potential toxic compounds resulting at least in part from wood degradation but also more(More)
White-rot fungi possess the unique ability to degrade and mineralize all the different components of wood. In other respects, wood durability, among other factors, is due to the presence of extractives that are potential antimicrobial molecules. To cope with these molecules, wood decay fungi have developed a complex detoxification network including(More)
Glutathione transferases (GSTs) form a superfamily of multifunctional proteins with essential roles in cellular detoxification processes and endogenous metabolism. The distribution of fungal-specific class A GSTs was investigated in saprotrophic fungi revealing a recent diversification within this class. Biochemical characterization of eight GSTFuA isoforms(More)
The glutathione-S-transferase (GST) proteins represent an extended family involved in detoxification processes. They are divided into various classes with high diversity in various organisms. The Ure2p class is especially expanded in saprophytic fungi compared to other fungi. This class is subdivided into two subclasses named Ure2pA and Ure2pB, which have(More)
The nature of the active site and the substrate specificity of poplar type II peroxiredoxin, an enzyme which preferentially uses glutaredoxin as an electron donor, were investigated in this study. The type II peroxiredoxin is able to use phospholipid hydroperoxide nearly as efficiently as hydrogen peroxide. Two of the hyper-conserved amino acid residues in(More)
Glutathione transferases (GSTs) represent an extended family of multifunctional proteins involved in detoxification processes and tolerance to oxidative stress. We thus anticipated that some GSTs could play an essential role in the protection of fungal necrotrophs against plant-derived toxic metabolites and reactive oxygen species that accumulate at the(More)
A number of prokaryotes actively contribute to lignin degradation in nature and their activity could be of interest for many applications including the production of biogas/biofuel from lignocellulosic biomass and biopulping. This review compares the reliability and efficiency of the culture-dependent screening methods currently used for the isolation of(More)
This paper describes how the combination of genomics, genetic engineering, and 3D structural characterization has helped clarify the redox regulatory networks in poplar with consequences not only in system biology in plants but also in bacteria and mammalian systems. Tree genomes are increasingly available with a large number of orphan genes coding for(More)