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Probability matching is a suboptimal behavior that often plagues human decision-making in simple repeated choice tasks. Despite decades of research, recent studies cannot find agreement on what choice strategies lead to probability matching. We propose a solution, showing that two distinct local choice strategies-which make different demands on executive(More)
It has been suggested that both familiarity and recollection contribute to the recognition decision process. In this paper we leverage the form of false alarm rate functions--in which false alarm rates describe an inverted U-shaped function as the time between study and test increases--to assess how these processes support retention of semantic and surface(More)
Suppose one observes a correlation between two events, B and C, and infers that B causes C. Later one discovers that event A explains away the correlation between B and C. Normatively, one should now dismiss or weaken the belief that B causes C. Nonetheless, participants in the current study who observed a positive contingency between B and C followed by(More)
Many studies of explanation have focused on higher level tasks and on how explanations draw upon relevant prior knowledge, which then helps in understanding some event or observation. However, explanations may also affect performance in simple tasks even when they include no task-relevant information. In three experiments, we show that explanations adding(More)
Similarity plays a central role in the study of perception and cognition. Previous attempts to model similarity have captured effects of either featural or structural similarity, but typically not both. We simulated both by fitting similarity data with the LISA model of rela-A symbolic-connectionist theory of relational inference and generalization.(More)
Categories underlie a variety of functions beyond just classification, including inference and explanation. To classify, people need to distinguish between categories, but other functions rely on within-category information (things true of a particular category, independent of others). Despite the need for both types of knowledge, recent work shows that(More)
  • Angela Schwering, Ulf Krumnack, Kai-Uwe Kühnberger, Helmar, Peter König, Petra Ludewig +19 others
  • 2007
Analogical reasoning is a highly sophisticated cognitive process and it could be the missing link for the understanding of cognitive abilities in natural complex systems. In many current approaches for modeling analogies and analogical reasoning, cognitive abilities are examined in isolation from related issues in order to control the environment and the(More)
Research on analogical retrieval suggests that cues with object similarity to a prior episode in memory lead to better retrieval than do cues with relational similarity. We suggest that previous work may have underestimated the effectiveness of relational cues, because this work has presented cues and targets in written format. There is some evidence that(More)
Similarity is a central construct in perceptual and cognitive science, with implications for everything from basic color and pattern perception, to object and phoneme recognition, memory retrieval, analogical reasoning and problem solving. Previous studies have examined people's overt similarity judgments to understand the roles of similarity in cognition,(More)
OBJECTIVE Americans do not vaccinate nearly enough against Influenza (flu) infection, despite severe health and economic burden of influenza. Younger people are disproportionately responsible for transmission, but do not suffer severely from the flu. Thus, to achieve herd immunity, prosocial motivation needs to be a partial driver of vaccination decisions.(More)