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Probability matching is a suboptimal behavior that often plagues human decision-making in simple repeated choice tasks. Despite decades of research, recent studies cannot find agreement on what choice strategies lead to probability matching. We propose a solution, showing that two distinct local choice strategies-which make different demands on executive(More)
It has been suggested that both familiarity and recollection contribute to the recognition decision process. In this paper we leverage the form of false alarm rate functions--in which false alarm rates describe an inverted U-shaped function as the time between study and test increases--to assess how these processes support retention of semantic and surface(More)
Similarity plays a central role in the study of perception and cognition. Previous attempts to model similarity have captured effects of either featural or structural similarity, but typically not both. We simulated both by fitting similarity data with the LISA model of rela-A symbolic-connectionist theory of relational inference and generalization.(More)
Suppose one observes a correlation between two events, B and C, and infers that B causes C. Later one discovers that event A explains away the correlation between B and C. Normatively, one should now dismiss or weaken the belief that B causes C. Nonetheless, participants in the current study who observed a positive contingency between B and C followed by(More)
Many studies of explanation have focused on higher level tasks and on how explanations draw upon relevant prior knowledge, which then helps in understanding some event or observation. However, explanations may also affect performance in simple tasks even when they include no task-relevant information. In three experiments, we show that explanations adding(More)
Categories underlie a variety of functions beyond just classification, including inference and explanation. To classify, people need to distinguish between categories, but other functions rely on within-category information (things true of a particular category, independent of others). Despite the need for both types of knowledge, recent work shows that(More)
Concepts and categories are crucial for intelligent thought and action. A child needs to learn to tell toys from tools and which types of dogs can be petted. A student needs to learn to distinguish the principle underlying a math problem, so that relevant principle knowledge can be applied. Researchers need to be able to decide what type of person has asked(More)
Research on analogical retrieval suggests that cues with object similarity to a prior episode in memory lead to better retrieval than do cues with relational similarity. We suggest that previous work may have underestimated the effectiveness of relational cues, because this work has presented cues and targets in written format. There is some evidence that(More)
Typical studies of concept learning in adults address the learning of novel concepts, but much of learning involves the updating and restructuring of familiar conceptual domains. Research on conceptual change explores this issue directly but differs greatly from the formal approach of the adult learning studies. This paper bridges these two areas to advance(More)