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BACKGROUND Toxins A and B are the primary virulence factors of Clostridium difficile. Since 2002, an epidemic of C difficile-associated disease with increased morbidity and mortality has been present in Quebec province, Canada. We characterised the dominant strain of this epidemic to determine whether it produces higher amounts of toxins A and B than those(More)
Using 42 isolates contributed by laboratories in Canada, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States, we compared the results of analyses done with seven Clostridium difficile typing techniques: multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), surface layer protein A gene sequence typing(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of health care-associated diarrhea, and the bacterium can also be carried asymptomatically. The objective of this study was to identify host and bacterial factors associated with health care-associated acquisition of C. difficile infection and colonization. METHODS We conducted a 15-month(More)
Molecular strain typing is essential for deciphering the epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni infections. We applied two different methods, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and analysis of the flaA short variable repeat (SVR), to 289 isolates (163 human, 56 chicken, 34 raw milk, and 36 environmental water isolates) collected in the province of Québec,(More)
BACKGROUND The simultaneous emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 group M and HIV-2 into human populations, circa 1921-1940, is attributed to urbanization and changes in sexual behavior. We hypothesized that the initial dissemination of HIV-1, before sexual transmission predominated, was facilitated by the administration, via reusable syringes(More)
OBJECTIVES To identify the contribution of Mycoplasma genitalium to the aetiology of cervicitis in sub-Saharan Africa and its relative importance in the overall burden of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers (FSW). METHODS The study population consisted of FSW recruited in Ghana and Benin during the initial visit of a randomised(More)
OBJECTIVES Male clients of female sex workers have rarely been specific targets for HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STD) interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed the effectiveness of outreach methodology for contacting sexual partners of female sex workers for purposes of HIV/STD prevention in Cotonou, Benin. DESIGN AND METHODS In collaboration(More)
Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and most clinical cases appear as isolated, sporadic infections for which the source is rarely apparent. From July 2005 to December 2007 we conducted a prospective case-case study of sporadic, domestically-acquired Campylobacter enteritis in rural versus urban areas and a(More)
BACKGROUND The spectrum of bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV) has recently expanded through taxonomic changes and the use of molecular methods. These methods have yet to be used in large-scale epidemiological studies in Africa where BV is highly prevalent. METHODS An analysis of samples obtained during a clinical trial of the management of(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology of HIV among core groups in Togo. METHODS We enumerated sex workers (SWs) and conducted cross-sectional surveys of SWs and their clients in 2003 in Lomé and in 2005 in the whole country. RESULTS Sex work was concentrated in Lomé, which comprised 15% of the population, but 52% of the 5397 SWs enumerated in Togo in(More)