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BACKGROUND Toxins A and B are the primary virulence factors of Clostridium difficile. Since 2002, an epidemic of C difficile-associated disease with increased morbidity and mortality has been present in Quebec province, Canada. We characterised the dominant strain of this epidemic to determine whether it produces higher amounts of toxins A and B than those(More)
The molecular epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the Central African Republic (CAR) is poorly documented. Thus, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of NS5B gene sequences from 58 HCV-infected inhabitants of a remote area of south-west CAR, which indicated that 48 (82.8%) were infected with genotype 4 (HCV-4), five (8.6%) with genotype 2 and five(More)
Using 42 isolates contributed by laboratories in Canada, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States, we compared the results of analyses done with seven Clostridium difficile typing techniques: multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), surface layer protein A gene sequence typing(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about the impact of episodic treatment of herpes on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). METHODS Women from Ghana and the Central African Republic who had genital ulcers were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of acyclovir plus antibacterials and were monitored for 28 days. Ulcer etiologies(More)
Campylobacter infection is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, and most clinical cases appear as isolated, sporadic infections for which the source is rarely apparent. From July 2005 to December 2007 we conducted a prospective case-case study of sporadic, domestically-acquired Campylobacter enteritis in rural versus urban areas and a(More)
BACKGROUND Clostridium difficile infection is the leading cause of health care-associated diarrhea, and the bacterium can also be carried asymptomatically. The objective of this study was to identify host and bacterial factors associated with health care-associated acquisition of C. difficile infection and colonization. METHODS We conducted a 15-month(More)
The diagnostic performances of the clinical case definition of influenza virus infection based on the combination of fever and cough and of two rapid influenza diagnostic tests, the Directigen Flu A+B test (Directigen; BD Diagnostic Systems, Sparks, Md.) and the QuickVue influenza test (QuickVue; Quidel, San Diego, Calif.), were compared to those of viral(More)
BACKGROUND The simultaneous emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 group M and HIV-2 into human populations, circa 1921-1940, is attributed to urbanization and changes in sexual behavior. We hypothesized that the initial dissemination of HIV-1, before sexual transmission predominated, was facilitated by the administration, via reusable syringes(More)
OBJECTIVES Male clients of female sex workers have rarely been specific targets for HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STD) interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. We assessed the effectiveness of outreach methodology for contacting sexual partners of female sex workers for purposes of HIV/STD prevention in Cotonou, Benin. DESIGN AND METHODS In collaboration(More)
OBJECTIVES To identify the contribution of Mycoplasma genitalium to the aetiology of cervicitis in sub-Saharan Africa and its relative importance in the overall burden of sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers (FSW). METHODS The study population consisted of FSW recruited in Ghana and Benin during the initial visit of a randomised(More)