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BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is histopathologically characterized by the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The depletion of these neurons is thought to reduce the dopaminergic function of the nigrostriatal pathway, as well as the neural fibers that link the substantia nigra to the striatum (putamen and caudate), causing(More)
BACKGROUND Studies of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) have demonstrated that a number of genes associated with infectivity have long repeat regions associated with phase variation in expression of the respective gene. The purpose of this study was to determine the genes that underwent phase variation during a 6-day period of experimental human(More)
We report the preoperative and postoperative clinical findings, M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms, and the cardiac catheterization findings in a newborn with left ventricular rhabdomyoma causing severe subaortic stenosis. The tumor was diagnosed by echocardiography at 3 hours of age. The clinical implications of the case are discussed.
BACKGROUND This study reports the baseline characteristics of diffusion tensor imaging data in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and healthy control subjects from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative. The main goals were to replicate previous findings of abnormal diffusion imaging values from the substantia nigra. in a large multicenter cohort and(More)
Diverse stresses including starvation and muscle disuse cause skeletal muscle atrophy. However, the molecular mechanisms of muscle atrophy are complex and not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45a protein (Gadd45a) is a critical mediator of muscle atrophy. We identified Gadd45a through an unbiased search for(More)
UNLABELLED This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and correlates of cognitive impairment (CI) and neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in early, untreated patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). BACKGROUND Both CI and NPS are common in PD and impact disease course and quality of life. However, limited knowledge is available about cognitive(More)
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) forms biofilms in the middle ear during human infection. The biofilm matrix of NTHI contains extracellular DNA. We show that NTHI possesses a potent nuclease, which is a homolog of the thermonuclease of Staphylococcus aureus. Using a biofilm dispersal assay, studies showed a biofilm dispersal pattern in the parent(More)
Introduction Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) are now the gold standard in health services research, including pharmacy-based interventions. Studies of behaviour, epidemiology, lifestyle modifications, educational programs, and health care models are utilizing the strengths of cluster randomized analyses. Methodology The key property of CRTs is the unit of(More)
BACKGROUND Data from surveillance networks help epidemiologists and public health officials detect emerging diseases, conduct outbreak investigations, manage epidemics, and better understand the mechanics of a particular disease. Surveillance networks are used to determine outbreak intensity (i.e., disease burden) and outbreak timing (i.e., the start, peak,(More)
We compared the observations of nearly 1,400 hand-hygiene-related events recorded by an automated system and by human observers. Observation details differed for 38% of these events. Two likely explanations for these inconsistencies were the distance between the observer and the event and the busyness of the clinic.