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Angiogenesis is regulated by a complex cascade of cellular and molecular events. The entire process can be reproduced in vitro by culturing rat or mouse aortic explants in three-dimensional biomatrices under chemically defined conditions. Angiogenesis in this system is driven by endogenous growth factors released by the aorta and its outgrowth. Sprouting(More)
This study was designed to investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) in the reabsorption of neovessels in collagen gel cultures of rat and mouse aortic rings. Aortic angiogenesis was associated with collagen lysis and production of the matrix-degrading enzymes MMP-2, MMP-9, and membrane-type MMP (MT1-MMP,(More)
The purpose of this study was to identify novel transcriptional events occurring in the aortic wall before angiogenesis. We used a defined tissue culture system that takes advantage of the capacity of rat aortic rings to generate neovessels ex vivo in response to angiogenic factor stimulation. Total RNA isolated from aortic rings 18 h posttreatment with(More)
Recent studies have implicated the Tie2 tyrosine-kinase receptor and its main ligands--angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2)--as crucial regulators of mural cell recruitment during angiogenesis. Angiopoietin-mediated activation of Tie2 promotes perivascular mural cell assembly, but the mechanisms regulating this process are poorly understood(More)
Rings of rat or mouse aorta embedded in collagen gels produce angiogenic outgrowths in response to the injury of the dissection procedure. Aortic outgrowths are composed of branching endothelial tubes and surrounding mural cells. Mural cells emerge following endothelial sprouting and gradually increase during the maturation of the neovessels. Treatment of(More)
Explants of rat inferior vena cava embedded in collagen gel and cultured under serum-free conditions produced microvascular outgrowths composed of endothelial cells and pericytes. Exogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) dose-dependently stimulated angiogenesis and induced the formation of complex(More)
The purpose of this study was to define early events during the angiogenic response of the aortic wall to injury. Rat aortic rings produced neovessels in collagen culture but lost this capacity over time. These quiescent rings responded to vascular endothelial growth factor but not to a mixture of macrophage-stimulatory cytokines and chemokines that was(More)
The angiogenic response to injury can be studied by culturing rat or mouse aortic explants in collagen gels. Gene expression studies show that aortic angiogenesis is preceded by an immune reaction with overexpression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and TLR-inducible genes. TLR1, 3, and 6 are transiently upregulated at 24 h whereas TLR2, 4, and 8 expression(More)
Angiogenesis can be studied ex vivo by culturing rat or mouse aortic rings in collagen gels. Unlike rat aorta explants, unstimulated mouse aortic rings were unable to spontaneously produce an angiogenic response under serum-free conditions. They, however, responded to bFGF and VEGF, generating networks of branching neovessels. Aortic rings from(More)
We used the aortic ring model of angiogenesis to investigate the role of beta(1) and beta(3) integrins in postangiogenic vascular survival in collagen and fibrin matrices. Confocal microscopy studies showed that both beta(1) and beta(3) integrins were expressed in endothelial cells and pericytes of sprouting neovessels. Antibody blocking experiments(More)