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BACKGROUND Zeranol (Z) is a non-steroidal anabolic growth promoter with potent estrogenic activity that is widely used as a growth promoter in the US beef industry. Consumption of beef derived from zeranol-implanted cattle may be a risk factor for breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS The effect of serum on the proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7(More)
Using a cell-based high-throughput screen designed to detect small chemical compounds that inhibit cell growth and survival, we identified three structurally related compounds, 21A8, 21H7, and 65D4, with differential activity on cancer versus normal cells. Introduction of structural modifications yielded compound M-110, which inhibits the proliferation of(More)
Epidemiological studies have suggested that there are many risk factors associated with breast cancer. Silencing tumor suppressor genes through epigenetic alterations play critical roles in breast cancer initiation, promotion and progression. As a growth promoter, Zeranol (Z) has been approved by the FDA and is widely used to enhance the growth of beef(More)
Breast cancer is a serious disease in the US. Numerous risk factors have been linked to this disease. The safety of using growth promoters, such as zeranol, remains under debate due to the lack of sufficient in vitro and in vivo evidence. Using CellTiter 96(™) Aqueous Non-Radioactive Cell Proliferation assay, real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, we(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity is associated with an increased risk of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding the role of zeranol (Z), a non-steroidal anabolic growth promoter with potent estrogenic activity widely used in the U.S.A. beef industry, as a possible contributor to an increased incidence of human breast cancer. This(More)
Breast cancer is the leading type of cancer in women in the United States. One of the known risk factors of breast cancer is obesity. Leptin is a product of the obese (ob) gene and plays an important role in breast cancer development. Its expression is up-regulated in obesity and it promotes breast cancer cell growth. Exposure to environmental estrogenic(More)
Among many risk factors of breast cancer, estrogens and non-estrogenic endocrine disruptors are considered to play critical roles in human breast carcinogenesis. Zeranol (Z) is a non-steroidal agent with potent estrogenic activity and has been widely used as an FDA approved beef growth promoter in the US. Recently, concerns have been raised about the(More)
Adipocytes account for more than 90% of human breast volume and secrete adipocytokines, which play a role in breast cancer development. Among the adipocytokines is leptin, which is secreted mainly by adipocytes and plays a key role in breast cancer development. Leptin expression is up-regulated in both obese and breast cancer patients, and promotes breast(More)
BACKGROUND The Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination of the United States (COMLEX-USA) Level 1 and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 scores are important factors in the selection process of medical students into US residency programs. OBJECTIVES The goals of this study were to investigate the correlation between(More)
Breast cancer and obesity are serious health problems and their relationship has been studied for many years. Leptin is mainly secreted by adipocytes and plays a key role in breast cancer development. Leptin expression is up-regulated in obese individuals and promotes breast cancer cell growth. On the other hand, exposure to environmental estrogens has been(More)
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