Eric F. Donaldson

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BACKGROUND Noroviruses are the leading cause of viral acute gastroenteritis in humans, noted for causing epidemic outbreaks in communities, the military, cruise ships, hospitals, and assisted living communities. The evolutionary mechanisms governing the persistence and emergence of new norovirus strains in human populations are unknown. Primarily organized(More)
Noroviruses are the most common cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, and explosive outbreaks frequently occur in community settings, where the virus can immobilize large numbers of infected individuals for 24–48 hours, making the development of effective vaccines and antiviral therapies a priority. However, several challenges have hampered(More)
Effective prediction of future viral zoonoses requires an in-depth understanding of the heterologous viral population in key animal species that will likely serve as reservoir hosts or intermediates during the next viral epidemic. The importance of bats as natural hosts for several important viral zoonoses, including Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Hendra, and(More)
Noroviruses are the principal cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide with GII.4 strains accounting for 80% of infections. The major capsid protein of GII.4 strains is evolving rapidly, resulting in new epidemic strains with altered antigenic potentials. To test if antigenic drift may contribute to GII.4 persistence, human memory B cells were(More)
UNLABELLED Sofosbuvir (Sovaldi, SOF) is a nucleotide analog prodrug that targets the hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) polymerase and inhibits viral replication. High sustained virological response rates are achieved when SOF is used in combination with ribavirin with or without pegylated interferon in subjects with chronic HCV(More)
SUMMARY Noroviruses are important human pathogens known to cause epidemic outbreaks of severe gastroenteritis in communities, military barracks, cruise ships, hospitals, and assisted living communities, resulting in over 267,000,000 annual infections worldwide. Diversity within the norovirus genus allows this virus to persist in human populations, although(More)
Norovirus immunity is poorly understood as the limited data available on protection after infection are often contradictory. In contrast to the more prominent GII noroviruses, GI norovirus infections are less frequent in outbreaks. The GI noroviruses display very complex patterns of heterotypic immune responses following infection, and many individuals are(More)
Noroviruses (NoVs) of genogroup II, cluster 4 (GII.4), are the most common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. During the past 13 years, GII.4 NoVs caused four seasons of widespread activity globally, each associated with the emergence of a new strain. In this report, we characterized the most recent epidemic strain, GII.4-2006 Minerva,(More)
Noroviruses are the principal cause of epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Multiple reports have concluded that the major capsid proteins of GII.4 strains, which cause 80% of norovirus infections worldwide, are evolving rapidly, resulting in new epidemic strains. Surrogate neutralization assays using sera from outbreaks and from immunized mice suggest that,(More)
Two novel coronaviruses have emerged in humans in the twenty-first century: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), both of which cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and are associated with high mortality rates. There are no clinically approved vaccines or antiviral(More)