Eric D. Smith

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Pretend play has been claimed to be crucial to children's healthy development. Here we examine evidence for this position versus 2 alternatives: Pretend play is 1 of many routes to positive developments (equifinality), and pretend play is an epiphenomenon of other factors that drive development. Evidence from several domains is considered. For language,(More)
Tradeoff studies are broadly recognized and mandated as the method for simultaneously considering multiple alternatives with many criteria, and as such are recommended in the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) process. Tradeoff studies, which involve human numerical judgment, calibration, and data updating,(More)
A sensitivity analysis is a powerful technique for understanding systems. This heuristic paper shows how to overcome some of the difficulties of performing sensitivity analyses. It draws examples from a broad range of fields: bioengineering, process control, decision making and system design. In particular, it examines sensitivity analyses of tradeoff(More)
Three studies examined the short-term impact of television (TV) on children's executive function (EF). Study 1 (N = 160) showed that 4- and 6-year-olds' EF is impaired after watching 2 different fast and fantastical shows, relative to that of children who watched a slow, realistic show or played. In Study 2 (N = 60), 4-year-olds' EF was as depleted after(More)
of its popularity, the execution of this technique often has flaws, among them are: Failing to differentiate between levels and categories of risk, 1. Using estimated probability of the event rather than its 2. frequency of occurrence, Using ordinal numbers instead of cardinal numbers for 3. severity, Using different ranges for severity and frequency, 4.(More)
Tradeoff studies involving human subjective calibration and data updating are often distrusted by decision makers. A review of objectivity and subjectivity in decision making confirms that prospect theory is a good model for actual human decision making. Relationships between tradeoff studies and the elements of experiments in judgment and decision making(More)
ion. So now, let us try to describe abstraction. Here are some dictionary definitions: “abstract adj. 1. Considered apart from concrete existence . . . 4. Thought of or stated without reference to a specific instance.” “abstraction n. The process of extracting the underlying essence, removing dependence on real world objects.” Abstraction allows designers(More)
Cognitive biases affect decision making in systems engineering (SE). Daniel Kahneman, 2002 Nobel laureate for his pioneering studies of cognitive biases in economic decision making, describes many disparate cognitive biases as abstractly belonging to one higher-level bias, that of attribute substitution. Attribute substitution occurs when an answer about a(More)
Pretend play emerges in children the world over around 18 months and continues into adolescence and even adulthood. Observing and engaging in pretense are thought to rely on similar neural mechanisms, but little is known about them. Here we examined neural activation patterns associated with observing pretense acts, including high-likelihood,(More)