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Narcolepsy, a disorder characterized by fragmented bouts of sleep and wakefulness during the day and night as well as cataplexy, has been linked in humans and nonhuman animals to the functional integrity of the orexinergic system. Adult orexin knockout mice and dogs with a mutation of the orexin receptor exhibit symptoms that mirror those seen in(More)
For decades, the Democrats have been viewed as the party of the poor, with the Republicans representing the rich. Recent presidential elections, however, have shown a reverse pattern, with Democrats performing well in the richer blue states in the northeast and coasts, and Republicans dominating in the red states in the middle of the country and the south.(More)
Humans have long been characterized as poor probabilistic reasoners when presented with explicit numerical information. Bayesian word problems provide a well-known example of this, where even highly educated and cognitively skilled individuals fail to adhere to mathematical norms. It is widely agreed that natural frequencies can facilitate Bayesian(More)
Competing views persist concerning the functional significance of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by infant rats. One perspective holds that USVs result from an emotional state of fear and anxiety, the adult expression of which depends in part on forebrain mechanisms. Here the authors examine whether pups lacking forebrain input are capable of(More)
The hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is a rare developmental malformation often characterized by gelastic seizures, which are usually refractory to medical therapy. The mechanisms of epileptogenesis operative in this subcortical lesion are unknown. In this study, we used standard patch-clamp electrophysiological techniques combined with histochemical approaches(More)
Homeostatic regulation is a defining characteristic of sleep but has rarely been examined in infants. This study presents an automated method of sleep deprivation in which 5-day-old rats were shocked whenever the nuchal muscle became atonic. The intensity of shock was always set at the minimal level required to maintain arousal. Deprived pups exhibited(More)
The Monty Hall Dilemma (MHD) is a two-step decision problem involving counterintuitive conditional probabilities. The first choice is made among three equally probable options, whereas the second choice takes place after the elimination of one of the non-selected options which does not hide the prize. Differing from most Bayesian problems, statistical(More)
Infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are widely believed to result from the induction of an emotional state of anxiety or distress. This perspective, however, is not easily reconciled with the demonstration by W. J. Farrell and J. R. Alberts 2000 that norepinephrine, a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor agonist with anxiogenic properties, inhibits(More)
The responses of 2- and 8-day-old rats (Rattus norvegicus) and hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) to thermal stimulation were assessed in 4 experiments. In Experiment 1, the surface underlying the pup was cooled, and the latency to escape to a region of warmth was measured. Experiment 2 required pups to locomote farther to gain access to warmth. Experiment 3(More)
A long prevailing view of human reasoning suggests severe limits on our ability to adhere to simple logical or mathematical prescriptions. A key position assumes these failures arise from insufficient monitoring of rapidly produced intuitions. These faulty intuitions are thought to arise from a proposed substitution process, by which reasoners unknowingly(More)