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Samples from cattle, other domestic and wild animals, flies, feeds, and water-troughs were collected from 12 cattle farms and tested for Escherichia coli O157. E. coli O157 was isolated from bovine fecal samples on all 12 farms with a within herd prevalence ranging from 1.1% to 6.1%. E. coli O157 was also found in 1 of 90 (1.1%) equine fecal samples, 2 of(More)
Management factors in 36 Pacific Northwest dairy herds were evaluated for their association with the prevalence of Shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli O157 (E. coli O157) in dairy cattle. The within-herd prevalence of E. coli O157 was estimated by bacteriological culture of fecal pat samples, collected monthly for 6 months (approximately 60 per visit),(More)
Using available data on the occurrence of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) in US layer flocks and eggs, and a probabilistic scenario tree method, an estimate of the fraction of SE-contaminated eggs produced annually is derived with attendant uncertainty. In lieu of a definitive prevalence survey, the approach presented here provides insight to the relative(More)
In July 1996, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), published the Pathogen Reduction; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) Systems final rule to improve food safety of meat and poultry products. The final rule established, among other requirements, pathogen reduction performance standards for(More)
Eggs were cultured from four commercial chicken layer houses implicated in three human outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis serotype enteritidis infection as part of the activities of the USDA-APHIS, VS, Salmonella enteritidis Task Force. Each house was part of a multiple in-line complex, ranging from three to seven houses. Houses were located on three(More)
The potential for competitive inhibition to limit the growth of microbial pathogens in food raises questions about the external validity of typical predictive microbiology studies and suggests the need to consider microbial community dynamics in food safety risk assessment. Ecological theory indicates, however, that community dynamics are highly complex and(More)
The prevalence and concentration of many foodborne pathogens exhibit seasonal patterns at different stages of the farm-to-table continuum. Escherichia coli O157:H7 is one such pathogen. While numerous studies have described the seasonal trend of E. coli O157:H7 in live cattle, ground beef, and human cases, it is difficult to relate the results from these(More)
The isolation rate for Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis (SE) in humans in the United States of America (USA) increased from 1,207 sporadic isolates identified in 1976 (0.6 isolates/100,000 population) to 10,201 identified in 1995 (4.0/100,000 population). The proportion of reported Salmonella isolates which were SE increased from 5% to 25% during(More)
Results from our model suggest that eating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis-contaminated shell eggs caused 182,060 illnesses in the United States during 2000. Uncertainty about the estimate ranged from 81,535 (5th percentile) to 276,500 illnesses (95th percentile). Our model provides but 1 approach for estimating foodborne illness and quantifying(More)
In order to estimate the prevalence and distribution of Salmonella enteritidis in U.S. commercial egg-production flocks, a survey of spent laying hens was conducted over a 3-month period. Seven of the 10 largest spent-hen processing plants in the United States participated. Ceca were sampled twice weekly from birds presented for slaughter at these plants.(More)