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The authors explore the division of labor between the basal ganglia-dopamine (BG-DA) system and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in decision making. They show that a primitive neural network model of the BG-DA system slowly learns to make decisions on the basis of the relative probability of rewards but is not as sensitive to (a) recency or (b) the value of(More)
OBJECTIVE Poor decision-making is a hallmark of addiction, whether to substances or activities. Performance on a widely used test of decision-making, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), can discriminate controls from persons with ventral medial frontal lesions, substance-dependence, and pathological gambling. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies indicate(More)
The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLFPC), not the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), plays the predominant role in implementing top-down attentional control. To do so, we used fMRI to examine practice-related changes in neural activity during a variant of the Stroop task. The results indicated that(More)
Contemporary perspectives on age differences in risk taking, informed by advances in developmental neuroscience, have emphasized the need to examine the ways in which emotional and cognitive factors interact to influence decision making. In the present study, a diverse sample of 901 individuals between the ages of 10 and 30 were administered a modified(More)
A growing number of imaging studies suggest that alcohol cues, mainly visual, elicit activation in mesocorticolimbic structures. Such findings are consistent with the growing recognition that these structures play an important role in the attribution of incentive salience and the pathophysiology of addiction. The present study investigated whether the(More)
BACKGROUND Studies suggest that polymorphisms in the D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4) and opioid receptor, mu 1 (OPRM1) genes are involved in differential response to the effects of alcohol and to alcohol cues. However, to date, the mechanisms that underlie these differences remain largely unknown. METHODS Using functional magnetic resonance imaging,(More)
Although numerous studies provide general support for the importance of genetic factors in the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs), candidate gene and genome-wide studies have yet to identify a set of genetic variations that explain a significant portion of the variance in AUDs. One reason is that alcohol-related phenotypes used in genetic studies are(More)
BACKGROUND Adolescence is commonly characterized by impulsivity, poor decision-making, and lack of foresight. However, the developmental neural underpinnings of these characteristics are not well established. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS To test the hypothesis that these adolescent behaviors are linked to under-developed proactive control mechanisms,(More)
BACKGROUND Alcohol dependence has repeatedly been associated with impulsive choice, or the inability to choose large delayed rewards over smaller, but more immediate rewards. However, the neural basis of impulsive choice in alcohol use disorders (AUDs) is not well understood. METHODS One hundred fifty-one individuals with a range of alcohol use from(More)
Susceptibility-induced magnetic field gradients (SFGs) can result in severe signal loss in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in gradient-echo-based functional MRI (fMRI) studies. Although conventional z-shim techniques can effectively recover the MRI signal in this region, the substantial penalty in imaging time hampers their use in routine fMRI studies. A(More)