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A variety of biological evidence has identified a frontal-parietal circuit underlying spatial working memory for visual stimuli. But the question remains, how do these neural regions accomplish the goal of maintaining location information on-line? We tested the hypothesis that the active rehearsal of spatial information in working memory is accomplished by(More)
A model of the signal path in arterial spin labeling (ASL)-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is presented. Three subtraction-based methods for forming a perfusion estimate are considered and shown to be specific cases of a generalized estimate consisting of a modulator followed by a low pass filter. The performance of the methods is(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine developmental change in hemispheric biases for globally and locally directed analysis of hierarchical forms. In a previous reaction time (RT) study, which presented hierarchical stimuli to the visual hemifields, children 7 to 14 years of age demonstrated an emerging pattern of hemispheric(More)
In pathologies in which slow or collateral flow conditions may exist, conventional arterial spin labeling (ASL) methods that apply magnetic tags based on the location of arterial spins may not provide robust measures of cerebral blood flow (CBF), as the transit delay for the delivery of blood to target tissues may far exceed the relaxation time of the tag.(More)
We summarize here current methods for the quantification of CBF using pulsed arterial spin labeling (ASL) methods. Several technical issues related to CBF quantitation are described briefly, including transit delay, signal from larger arteries, radio frequency (RF) slice profiles, magnetization transfer, tagging efficiency, and tagging geometry. Many pulsed(More)
The authors studied the effects of altering global cerebral blood flow on both blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response and perfusion response to finger-thumb apposition. A PICORE/QUIPSS II protocol was used to collect interleaved BOLD-weighted and perfusion-weighted images on eight finger-thumb apposition trials. Subjects were studied on a drug-free(More)
Perfusion-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using arterial spin labeling (ASL) methods has the potential to provide better localization of the functional signal to the sites of neural activity compared to blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast fMRI. At present, experiments using ASL have been limited to simple block and periodic(More)
Functional neuroimaging studies have produced a sizable number of observations of increased activity in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) during encoding of novel memories. The studies have suggested possible functional specialization within the anatomical components of the MTL (hippocampus and the entorhinal, perirhinal, and parahippocampal cortical(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome for Asian Americans and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), given that existing evidence shows racial/ethnic heterogeneity exists in how BMI predicts metabolic syndrome. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Electronic health records of 43,507 primary care patients aged 35 years and(More)
Brain areas associated with both nondeclarative categorization and recognition memory were identified and contrasted using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of healthy volunteers. Activity during dot-pattern categorization and recognition were compared with a control task (counting dots) in two separate groups of participants (n=5 each). The(More)