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Synaptotagmins contain tandem C2 domains and function as Ca(2+) sensors for vesicle exocytosis but the mechanism for coupling Ca(2+) rises to membrane fusion remains undefined. Synaptotagmins bind SNAREs, essential components of the membrane fusion machinery, but the role of these interactions in Ca(2+)-triggered vesicle exocytosis has not been directly(More)
The plasma membrane soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins syntaxin and synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) and the vesicle SNARE protein vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) are essential for a late Ca(2+)-dependent step in regulated exocytosis, but their precise roles and regulation by(More)
The activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can result in an inhibition of Ca(2+)-dependent hormone and neurotransmitter secretion. This has been attributed in part to G protein inhibition of Ca(2+) influx. However, a frequently dominant inhibitory effect, of unknown mechanism, also occurs distal to Ca(2+) entry. Here we characterize direct(More)
The nervous system can modulate neurotransmitter release by neurotransmitter activation of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors. We found that microinjection of G protein betagamma subunits (Gbetagamma) mimics serotonin's inhibitory effect on neurotransmission. Release of free Gbetagamma was critical for this effect because a(More)
Alterations in lipid metabolism play an integral role in neuronal death in cerebral ischemia. Here we used an in vitro model, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) of rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, and analyzed changes in phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) metabolism. OGD (4-8 h) of PC12 cells triggered a dramatic reduction in PC and SM levels,(More)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most prevalent and highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders in humans. There is significant evidence that the onset and severity of ASD is governed in part by complex genetic mechanisms affecting the normal development of the brain. To date, a number of genes have been associated with ASD. However, the(More)
UNLABELLED We sought to advance methodology for studying microglial activation and putative therapeutic downregulation in response to minocycline by means of noninvasive in vivo imaging. A reproducible focal white matter lesion was used to reliably compare treatment conditions. METHODS The corpus callosum of female Sprague Dawley rats was injected with(More)
Quantitative major polyacetylenes of carrots (falcarinol and falcarindiol) and American ginseng roots (falcarinol and panaxydol) were isolated and tested in human intestinal epithelial cells of normal (FHs 74 Int.) and cancer (Caco-2) origin. A hormesis effect was seen for all isolated polyacetylenes when added to Caco-2 cells in concentrations ranging from(More)
There is increasing evidence from genome-wide association studies for a strong inherited genetic basis of susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children, yet the effects of protein-coding variants on ALL risk have not been systematically evaluated. Here we show a missense variant in CDKN2A associated with the development of ALL at(More)
Copy number variants (CNVs) are thought to play an important role in the predisposition to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, their relatively low frequency and widespread genomic distribution complicates their accurate characterization and utilization for clinical genetics purposes. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of multi-study, genome-wide(More)