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The H5N1 avian influenza virus that killed 6 of 18 persons infected in Hong Kong in 1997 was transmitted directly from poultry to humans. Viral isolates from this outbreak may provide molecular clues to zoonotic transfer. Here we demonstrate that the H5N1 viruses circulating in poultry comprised two distinguishable phylogenetic lineages in all genes that(More)
BACKGROUND In May, 1997, a 3-year-old boy in Hong Kong was admitted to the hospital and subsequently died from influenza pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Reye's syndrome, multiorgan failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. An influenza A H5N1 virus was isolated from a tracheal aspirate of the boy. Preceding this incident, avian(More)
Laboratory diagnosis of viral respiratory infections is generally performed by virus isolation in cell culture and immunofluorescent assays. Reverse transcriptase PCR is now recognized as a sensitive and specific alternative for detection of respiratory RNA viruses. A rapid real-time multiplex PCR assay was developed for the detection of influenza A and(More)
Introduction of influenza viruses with gene segments of avian origin into the human population may result in the emergence of new pathogenic human influenza viruses. The recent infection of a 3-year-old boy with an influenza A (H5N1) virus of avian origin can be considered as an example of such an event. However, this virus, influenza A/Hong Kong/156/97(More)
In 5-40% of respiratory infections in children, the diagnostics remain negative, suggesting that the patients might be infected with a yet unknown pathogen. Virus discovery cDNA-AFLP (VIDISCA) is a virus discovery method based on recognition of restriction enzyme cleavage sites, ligation of adaptors and subsequent amplification by PCR. However, direct(More)
Cynomolgus macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were immunized twice intramuscularly, either with a conventional non-adjuvanted subunit vaccine or with a candidate immune-stimulating complex (iscom) vaccine, each containing 10 micrograms envelope glycoprotein of a recent human influenza A(H3N2) virus (A/Netherlands/18/94). In contrast to the macaques(More)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and lower-respiratory-tract infections. Diagnosis has traditionally been obtained by serological diagnosis, but increasingly, molecular techniques have been applied. However, the number of studies actually comparing these assays is limited. The development of a novel duplex real-time(More)
Laboratory-based surveillance, one of the pillars of monitoring infectious disease trends, relies on data produced in clinical and/or public health laboratories. Currently, diagnostic laboratories worldwide submit strains or samples to a relatively small number of reference laboratories for characterisation and typing. However, with the introduction of(More)
Clinical Clostridium difficile isolates of patients with diarrhea or pseudomembranous colitis usually produce both toxin A and toxin B, but an increasing number of reports mention infections due to toxin A-negative, toxin B-positive (A(-)/B(+)) strains. Thirty-nine clinical toxin A(-)/B(+) isolates, and 12 other unrelated isolates were obtained from Canada,(More)