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BACKGROUND In May, 1997, a 3-year-old boy in Hong Kong was admitted to the hospital and subsequently died from influenza pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Reye's syndrome, multiorgan failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. An influenza A H5N1 virus was isolated from a tracheal aspirate of the boy. Preceding this incident, avian(More)
The H5N1 avian influenza virus that killed 6 of 18 persons infected in Hong Kong in 1997 was transmitted directly from poultry to humans. Viral isolates from this outbreak may provide molecular clues to zoonotic transfer. Here we demonstrate that the H5N1 viruses circulating in poultry comprised two distinguishable phylogenetic lineages in all genes that(More)
Pigs have been proposed to act as the intermediate hosts in the generation of pandemic human influenza strains by reassortment of genes from avian and human influenza virus strains. The circulation of avian-like H1N1 influenza viruses in European pigs since 1979 and the detection of human-avian reassortants in pigs raises the question of whether these(More)
Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is suitable for high-throughput and rapid diagnostics at low costs and can be considered an alternative for conventional biochemical and molecular identification systems in a conventional microbiological laboratory. First, we evaluated MALDI-TOF MS using 327 clinical(More)
Adenovirus (AdV) infections are an increasingly frequent and potentially fatal complication in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. To determine the antiviral potential of ribavirin in an unbiased way, 4 patients without immune recovery were prospectively analyzed by quantitative measurement of plasma AdV DNA load. Administration of ribavirin at the(More)
It is generally believed that pigs can serve as an intermediate host for the transmission of avian influenza viruses to humans or as mixing vessels for the generation of avian-human reassortant viruses. Here we describe the antigenic and genetic characterization of two influenza A (H1N1) viruses, which were isolated in The Netherlands from two patients who(More)
BACKGROUND Norovirus, Rotavirus group A, Astrovirus, Sapovirus and Adenovirus serotypes 40 and 41, are common causes of gastroenteritis. Conventional diagnosis of these causative agents is based on antigen detection and electron microscopy. OBJECTIVE To improve the diagnostic possibilities for viral gastroenteritis, two internally controlled multiplex(More)
Four human coronaviruses (HCoV-229E, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-OC43) are associated with a range of respiratory outcomes, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Their epidemiologies and clinical characteristics are poorly described and are often reliant on case reports. To address these problems, we conducted a large-scale comprehensive screening for(More)
In this report we examine the hypothesis that aquatic birds are the primordial source of all influenza viruses in other species. Two partly overlapping reservoirs of influenza A viruses exist in migrating water-fowl and shorebirds throughout the world. These species harbor influenza viruses of all the known hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes. In(More)