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The genotoxicity testing battery is highly sensitive for detection of chemical carcinogens. However, it features a low specificity and provides only limited mechanistic information required for risk assessment of positive findings. This is especially important in case of positive findings in the in vitro chromosome damage assays, because chromosome damage(More)
We have used digital fluorescence imaging techniques to explore the interplay between mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and physiological Ca2+ signaling in rat cortical astrocytes. A rise in cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]cyt), resulting from mobilization of ER Ca2+ stores was followed by a rise in mitochondrial Ca2+ ([Ca2+]m, monitored using rhod-2). Whereas [Ca2+]cyt(More)
We report severe coenzyme Q10 deficiency of muscle in a 4-year-old boy presenting with progressive muscle weakness, seizures, cerebellar syndrome, and a raised cerebro-spinal fluid lactate concentration. State-3 respiratory rates of muscle mitochondria with glutamate, pyruvate, palmitoylcarnitine, and succinate as respiratory substrates were markedly(More)
Recent work has focused attention on the role of oxidative stress in various acute and chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Low concentrations of the powerful antioxidant glutathione (GSH) and impaired brain energy metabolism, particularly in the substantia nigra, are key features of Parkinson's disease (PD). The main goal of this study was to better(More)
In this publication, we report the outcome of the integrated EU Framework 6 PROJECT: Predictive Toxicology (PredTox), including methodological aspects and overall conclusions. Specific details including data analysis and interpretation are reported in separate articles in this issue. The project, partly funded by the EU, was carried out by a consortium of(More)
Based on the assumption that compounds having similar toxic modes of action induce specific gene expression changes, the toxicity of unknown compounds can be predicted after comparison of their molecular fingerprints with those obtained with compounds of known toxicity. These predictive models will therefore rely on the characterization of marker genes.(More)
To elucidate the reasons for glycolytic deviation commonly found in brain tumors, hexokinase (HK) activity, mitochondria-HK binding, oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial ultrastructure were studied in 4 human xenografted gliomas. Lactate/pyruvate ratios were increased 3-4 fold and HK activity was of 2-4 fold lower than that of normal rat brain(More)
Gene expression profiling technology is expected to advance our understanding of genotoxic mechanisms involving direct or indirect interaction with DNA. We exposed human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells to 14 anticancer drugs (vincristine, paclitaxel, etoposide, daunorubicin, camptothecin, amsacrine, cytosine arabinoside, hydroxyurea, methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil,(More)
Evaluating the risk of chemical carcinogenesis has long been a challenge owing to the protracted nature of the pathology and the limited translatability of animal models. Although numerous short-term in vitro and in vivo assays have been developed, they have failed to reliably predict the carcinogenicity of nongenotoxic compounds. Extending upon previous(More)
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of related receptors implicated in a diverse array of biological processes. There are 3 main isotypes of PPARs known as PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ and each is organized into domains associated with a function such as ligand binding, activation and DNA binding. PPARs are activated by ligands, which(More)