Eric Battenberg

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We describe a hypothalamus-specific mRNA that encodes preprohypocretin, the putative precursor of a pair of peptides that share substantial amino acid identities with the gut hormone secretin. The hypocretin (Hcrt) protein products are restricted to neuronal cell bodies of the dorsal and lateral hypothalamic areas. The fibers of these neurons are widespread(More)
We show that an end-to-end deep learning approach can be used to recognize either English or Mandarin Chinese speech–two vastly different languages. Because it replaces entire pipelines of hand-engineered components with neural networks, end-to-end learning allows us to handle a diverse variety of speech including noisy environments, accents and different(More)
cDNA clones of a neuronal-specific mRNA encoding a novel 25-kD synaptosomal protein, SNAP-25, that is widely, but differentially expressed by diverse neuronal subpopulations of the mammalian nervous system have been isolated and characterized. The sequence of the SNAP-25 cDNA revealed a single open reading frame that encodes a primary translation product of(More)
To gain insights into transcription factors defining neuronal identity, we generated transgenic mice carrying a 1.8 kb rat neuron-specific enolase (NSE) promoter fragment fused to an E. coli lacZ gene. Four of seven transgenic families expressed transgene RNA in the nervous system but not in most other tissues. Histochemical analysis of adult brain from the(More)
The cellular distribution of the type 3 serotonin receptor (5HT3R) in the rat brain was established immunocytochemically by using a polyclonal antibody raised against a synthetic peptide from the deduced amino-acid sequence of the cloned 5HT3R. The 5HT3R-immunoreactive neurons were found in the forebrain, brainstem, and spinal cord, but within each region,(More)
We developed and characterized 14 polyclonal antibodies against peptides whose sequences were predicted from the type 3 serotonin receptor subunit A (5-HT3R-A) cDNA. One such antiserum, 0165, raised against a peptide corresponding to the large putative intracellular loop, immunoprecipitated in vitro translated 5-HT3R-A protein and recognized both(More)
We used in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to investigate the presence of GABA in neurons that express the type 3 serotonin receptor (5-HT3R). Quantitative analysis indicated that more than 90% of 5-HT3R expressing cells are GABAergic in the neocortex and hippocampus. The co-existence of 5-HT3R and GABA in cortical and hippocampal neurons(More)
Four structurally related neuron-specific 1B426b mRNAs, designated AMY, BMY, AMZ, and BMZ, have been isolated from rat brain cDNA libraries. The four mRNAs are related to one another by their shared M region and by two pairs of alternative 5' (A, B) or 3' (Y, Z) regions. All four possible combinations were detected. The four transcripts are derived by(More)
Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has been successfully used in audio source separation and parts-based analysis; however, iterative NMF algorithms are computationally intensive, and therefore, time to convergence is very slow on typical personal computers. In this paper, we describe high performance parallel implementations of NMF developed using(More)