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BACKGROUND Vitamin D has potent anticancer properties, especially against digestive-system cancers. Many human studies have used geographic residence as a marker of solar ultraviolet B and hence vitamin D exposure. Here, we considered multiple determinants of vitamin D exposure (dietary and supplementary vitamin D, skin pigmentation, adiposity, geographic(More)
OBJECTIVE Intake of carbohydrates that provide a large glycemic response has been hypothesized to increase the risk of NIDDM, whereas dietary fiber is suspected to reduce incidence. These hypotheses have not been evaluated prospectively. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We examined the relationship between diet and risk of NIDDM in a cohort of 42,759 men(More)
CONTEXT Fish (finfish or shellfish) may have health benefits and also contain contaminants, resulting in confusion over the role of fish consumption in a healthy diet. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION We searched MEDLINE, governmental reports, and meta-analyses, supplemented by hand reviews of references and direct investigator contacts, to identify reports published(More)
Few food frequency questionnaires have been evaluated for their ability to assess intakes of individual foods that may be related to disease independently of their nutrient content. The reproducibility and validity of food intake measurements by a 131-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire were evaluated in a sample of 127 men from the Health(More)
BACKGROUND Adherence to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, measured with the US Department of Agriculture Healthy Eating Index (HEI), was associated with only a small reduction in major chronic disease risk. Research suggests that greater reductions in risk are possible with more specific guidance. OBJECTIVE We evaluated whether 2 alternate measures of(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relation between obesity, fat distribution, and weight gain through adulthood and the risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed data from a cohort of 51,529 U.S. male health professionals, 40-75 years of age in 1986, who completed biennial questionnaires sent out in 1986,(More)
BACKGROUND Television (TV) watching, a major sedentary behavior in the United States, has been associated with obesity. We hypothesized that prolonged TV watching may increase risk for type 2 diabetes. METHODS In 1986, 37 918 men aged 40 to 75 years and free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer completed a detailed physical activity(More)
OBJECTIVE To summarise quantitatively the association between moderate alcohol intake and biological markers of risk of coronary heart disease and to predict how these changes would lower the risk. DESIGN Meta-analysis of all experimental studies that assessed the effects of moderate alcohol intake on concentrations of high density lipoprotein(More)
The authors assessed the reproducibility and validity of an expanded 131-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire used in a prospective study among 51,529 men. The form was administered by mail twice to a sample of 127 participants at a one-year interval. During this interval, men completed two one-week diet records spaced approximately 6 months(More)
BACKGROUND Overweight adults are at an increased risk of developing numerous chronic diseases. METHODS Ten-year follow-up (1986-1996) of middle-aged women in the Nurses' Health Study and men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study to assess the health risks associated with overweight. RESULTS The risk of developing diabetes, gallstones,(More)