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Molecular genetic studies of Drosophila melanogaster have led to profound advances in understanding the regulation of development. Here we report gene expression patterns for nearly one-third of all Drosophila genes during a complete time course of development. Mutations that eliminate eye or germline tissue were used to further analyze tissue-specific gene(More)
Plating of the astaxanthin-producing yeast Phaffia rhodozyma onto yeast-malt agar containing 50 muM antimycin A gave rise to colonies of unusual morphology, characterized by a nonpigmented lower smooth surface that developed highly pigmented vertical papillae after 1 to 2 months. Isolation and purification of the pigmented papillae, followed by testing for(More)
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters constitute a ubiquitous superfamily of integral membrane proteins that are responsible for the ATP-powered translocation of many substrates across membranes. The highly conserved ABC domains of ABC transporters provide the nucleotide-dependent engine that drives transport. By contrast, the transmembrane domains that(More)
How the widely used botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) recognizes and enters neurons is poorly understood. We found that BoNT/A enters neurons by binding to the synaptic vesicle protein SV2 (isoforms A, B, and C). Fragments of SV2 that harbor the toxin interaction domain inhibited BoNT/A from binding to neurons. BoNT/A binding to SV2A and SV2B knockout(More)
Almost all organisms require iron for enzymes involved in essential cellular reactions. Aerobic microbes living at neutral or alkaline pH encounter poor iron availability due to the insolubility of ferric iron. Assimilatory ferric reductases are essential components of the iron assimilatory pathway that generate the more soluble ferrous iron, which is then(More)
Carotenoids have recently received considerable interest because of their potential in delaying or preventing degenerative diseases such as arteriosclerosis, cancer, and aging. In this study we show that the active oxygen species singlet oxygen (1O2) and peroxyl radicals differently affect carotenoid composition and biosynthesis in the yeast Phaffia(More)
The Drosophila tracheal (respiratory) system is a tubular epithelial network that delivers oxygen to internal tissues. Sprouting of the major tracheal branches is stereotyped and controlled by hard-wired developmental cues. Here we show that ramification of the fine terminal branches is variable and regulated by oxygen, and that this process is controlled(More)
IMPORTANCE Increased use of computed tomography (CT) in pediatrics raises concerns about cancer risk from exposure to ionizing radiation. OBJECTIVES To quantify trends in the use of CT in pediatrics and the associated radiation exposure and cancer risk. DESIGN Retrospective observational study. SETTING Seven US health care systems. PARTICIPANTS The(More)
Carotenoids occur universally in photosynthetic organisms but sporadically in nonphotosynthetic bacteria and eukaryotes. The primordial carotenogenic organisms were cyanobacteria and eubacteria that carried out anoxygenic photosynthesis. The phylogeny of carotenogenic organisms is evaluated to describe groups of organisms which could serve as sources of(More)
We show that a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway controls embryonic migrations of blood cells (hemocytes) in Drosophila. The VEGF receptor homolog is expressed in hemocytes, and three VEGF homologs are expressed along hemocyte migration routes. A receptor mutation arrests progression of blood cell movement. Mutations in Vegf17E or Vegf27Cb(More)