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Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a behavioral state characterized by cerebral cortical activation with dreaming as an associated behavior. The brainstem mechanisms involved in the generation of REM sleep are well-known, but the forebrain mechanisms that might distinguish it from waking are not well understood. We report here a positron emission tomography(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors investigated the neurobiological basis of poor sleep and daytime fatigue in insomnia. METHOD [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was used to assess regional cerebral glucose metabolism of seven patients with insomnia and 20 healthy subjects. RESULTS Compared with healthy subjects, patients with insomnia showed(More)
Sleep is an essential human function. Although the function of sleep has generally been regarded to be restorative, recent data indicate that it also plays an important role in cognition. The neurobiology of human sleep is most effectively analysed with functional imaging, and PET studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of both rapid eye(More)
BACKGROUND Disturbances of the sleep/wake cycle are fundamental clinical symptoms for patients with many of the mental disorders. This review of the literature on research in sleep and mental disorders from 1966 to 1991 highlights the major developments and findings that are central to the development of a DSM-IV diagnosis of sleep disorders related to(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on procedural and declarative memory encoding in the evening prior to sleep, on memory consolidation during subsequent sleep, and on retrieval in the morning after sleep. METHODS Memory performance (procedural mirror-tracing task, declarative visual and verbal(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors compared the effects of bupropion, fluoxetine, and cognitive behavior therapy on EEG sleep in depressed subjects. METHOD All-night sleep EEG studies were performed before treatment and after partial or full remission on 18 men with depression diagnosed according to Research Diagnostic Criteria and randomly assigned to treatment with(More)
OBJECTIVE The treatment of geriatric depression is complicated by a variable and delayed response to antidepressant treatment. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that combined total sleep deprivation and paroxetine treatment would produce a persistent reduction in glucose metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex similar to that(More)
Based on recent functional brain imaging studies of healthy human REM sleep, we hypothesized that alterations in REM sleep in mood disorder patients reflect a functional dysregulation within limbic and paralimbic forebrain structures during that sleep state. Six unipolar depressed subjects and eight healthy subjects underwent separate(More)
This study sought to clarify the effects of bupropion SR on anterior paralimbic function in depressed patients by studying changes in the activation of these structures from waking to REM sleep both before and after treatment. Twelve depressed patients underwent concurrent EEG sleep studies and [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]-FDG) positron emission(More)
Relative regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and wakefulness was explored in combat veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD, using positron emission tomography. Hypermetabolism in brain regions involved in arousal regulation, fear responses, and reward processing persist during REM sleep in(More)