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Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a behavioral state characterized by cerebral cortical activation with dreaming as an associated behavior. The brainstem mechanisms involved in the generation of REM sleep are well-known, but the forebrain mechanisms that might distinguish it from waking are not well understood. We report here a positron emission tomography(More)
Sleep is an essential human function. Although the function of sleep has generally been regarded to be restorative, recent data indicate that it also plays an important role in cognition. The neurobiology of human sleep is most effectively analysed with functional imaging, and PET studies have contributed substantially to our understanding of both rapid eye(More)
OBJECTIVE The treatment of geriatric depression is complicated by a variable and delayed response to antidepressant treatment. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that combined total sleep deprivation and paroxetine treatment would produce a persistent reduction in glucose metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex similar to that(More)
OBJECTIVE This study characterized objectively the hypersomnia frequently seen in the depressed phase of bipolar affective disorder. On the basis of previous work in sleep and affective disorders, it has been hypothesized that the hypersomnia is related to greater REM sleep. This hypothesis was tested by using a multiple sleep latency test to compare(More)
BACKGROUND Disturbances of the sleep/wake cycle are fundamental clinical symptoms for patients with many of the mental disorders. This review of the literature on research in sleep and mental disorders from 1966 to 1991 highlights the major developments and findings that are central to the development of a DSM-IV diagnosis of sleep disorders related to(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors investigated the neurobiological basis of poor sleep and daytime fatigue in insomnia. METHOD [(18)F]Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography was used to assess regional cerebral glucose metabolism of seven patients with insomnia and 20 healthy subjects. RESULTS Compared with healthy subjects, patients with insomnia showed(More)
OBJECTIVE Sleep disturbances characterize depression and may reflect the abnormal persistence of brain activity from wakefulness into non-REM sleep. The goal of this study was to investigate the functional neuroanatomical correlates of non-REM sleep relative to presleep wakefulness in depressed patients and healthy subjects. METHOD Twelve medication-free(More)
This study sought to clarify the neurobiological basis of variations in one aspect of central nervous system 'arousal' in depression by characterizing the functional neuroanatomic correlates of beta electroencephalographic (EEG) power density during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. First, nine healthy (n=9) subjects underwent concurrent EEG sleep(More)
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent disorder that is associated with poor clinical and health outcomes, and considerable health care utilization and costs. Recent estimates suggest that 5-20% of military personnel who serve in current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan meet diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Clinically, sleep disturbances are core(More)
In sleep medicine, patients with sleep disorders are evaluated and treated. The primary assessment tool of the field has traditionally been polysomnography. While polysomnography has been helpful in the evaluation of some sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder, it has been less helpful in others, such as the(More)