Eric A Newman

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Blood flow in the brain is regulated by neurons and astrocytes. Knowledge of how these cells control blood flow is crucial for understanding how neural computation is powered, for interpreting functional imaging scans of brains, and for developing treatments for neurological disorders. It is now recognized that neurotransmitter-mediated signalling has a key(More)
The inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir4.1 has been suggested to underlie the principal K(+) conductance of mammalian Müller cells and to participate in the generation of field potentials and regulation of extracellular K(+) in the retina. To further assess the role of Kir4.1 in the retina, we generated a mouse line with targeted disruption of the(More)
  • E A Newman
  • The Journal of neuroscience : the official…
  • 2001
Intercellular Ca(2+) waves are believed to propagate through networks of glial cells in culture in one of two ways: by diffusion of IP(3) between cells through gap junctions or by release of ATP, which functions as an extracellular messenger. Experiments were conducted to determine the mechanism of Ca(2+) wave propagation between glial cells in an intact(More)
Rapid changes in extracellular K+ concentration ([K+](o)) in the mammalian CNS are counteracted by simple passive diffusion as well as by cellular mechanisms of K+ clearance. Buffering of [K+](o) can occur via glial or neuronal uptake of K+ ions through transporters or K+-selective channels. The best studied mechanism for [K+](o) buffering in the brain is(More)
Neuronal activity evokes localized changes in blood flow. Although this response, termed neurovascular coupling, is widely used to monitor human brain function and diagnose pathology, the cellular mechanisms that mediate the response remain unclear. We investigated the contribution of glial cells to neurovascular coupling in the acutely isolated mammalian(More)
Abstract Although glia often envelop synapses, they have traditionally been viewed as passive participants in synaptic function. Recent evidence has demonstrated, however, that there is a dynamic two-way communication between glia and neurons at the synapse. Neurotransmitters released from presynaptic neurons evoke Ca2+ concentration increases in adjacent(More)
ATP is released by neurons and functions as a neurotransmitter and modulator in the CNS. Here I show that ATP released from glial cells can also serve as a potent neuromodulator, inhibiting neurons in the retina of the rat. Activation of glial cells by focal ejection of ATP, ATPgammaS, dopamine, thrombin, or lysophosphatidic acid or by mechanical(More)
Calcium signals were recorded from glial cells in acutely isolated rat retina to determine whether Ca2+ waves occur in glial cells of intact central nervous system tissue. Chemical (adenosine triphosphate), electrical, and mechanical stimulation of astrocytes initiated increases in the intracellular concentration of Ca2+ that propagated at approximately 23(More)
  • E A Newman
  • The Journal of neuroscience : the official…
  • 1993
The voltage- and K(+)-dependent properties of Müller cell currents and channels were characterized in freshly dissociated salamander Müller cells. In whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments, cells with endfeet intact and cells missing endfeet both displayed strong inward rectification. The rectification was similar in shape in both groups of cells but currents(More)
Glial-neuronal communication was studied by monitoring the effect of intercellular glial Ca2+ waves on the electrical activity of neighboring neurons in the eyecup preparation of the rat. Calcium waves in astrocytes and Müller cells were initiated with a mechanical stimulus applied to the retinal surface. Changes in the light-evoked spike activity of(More)