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Use of a time- and cost-efficient simulation procedure to assess reinforcement efficacy in humans was explored in the present study. Opioid-dependent outpatients completed questionnaires asking how many cigarettes or bags of heroin they would purchase across a range of prices. Reported consumption patterns conformed to a quantitative model that has been(More)
RATIONALE A growing literature suggests that excessive temporal discounting of delayed rewards may be a contributing factor in the etiology of substance abuse problems. Little is known, however, about how drug deprivation may affect temporal discounting of delayed rewards by drug-dependent individuals. OBJECTIVE To examine the extent to which opioid(More)
We investigated whether nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use was associated with a lower risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) in a large cohort of US men and women. PD risk was lower among ibuprofen users than nonusers. Compared with nonusers, the relative risks were 0.73 for users of fewer than 2 tablets/week, 0.72 for 2 to 6.9 tablets/week, and 0.62 for 1(More)
The present study demonstrated the relative impact of gambling and nongambling contexts on the degree of delay discounting by pathological gamblers. We used a delay-discounting task with 20 pathological gamblers in and out of the natural context in which they regularly gambled. For 16 of the 20 participants, it appeared that the difference of context(More)
Four adult humans made repeated choices between two time-based schedules of points exchangeable for money: a fixed-interval schedule and a progressive-interval schedule that began at 0 s and increased in fixed increments following each point delivered by that schedule. Under reset conditions, selection of the fixed schedule not only produced a point but(More)
A first-person shooter video game was adapted for the study of choice between smaller sooner and larger later outcomes. Participants chose when to fire a weapon that increased in damage potential over a 10s interval, an escalating interest situation. Across two experiments, participants demonstrated sensitivity to the nature of the mathematical function(More)
Recent theories of substance abuse have used value discounting of delayed rewards to partly explain the decision to take drugs. Normative-economic theory holds that an exponential function describes the effects of delay on discounting, whereas the matching law posits a hyperbolic discounting function. The ability of these functions to describe 18 human(More)
Discounting of delayed rewards by pathological gamblers was compared to discounting of delayed rewards by matched control nongambling participants. All participants completed a hypothetical choice task in which they made repeated choices between dollars 1,000 available after a delay and an equal or lesser amount of money available immediately. The delay to(More)
Based on prior research showing that people underestimate the influence of motivational states they are not currently experiencing, we predicted and found that heroin addicts would value an extra dose of the heroin substitute Buprenorphine more highly when they were currently craving (right before receiving BUP) than when they were currently satiated (right(More)