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Rhythmic expression of period (per) and timeless (tim) genes in central circadian pacemaker neurons and prothoracic gland cells, part of the peripheral circadian oscillators in flies, may synergistically control eclosion rhythms, but their oscillatory profiles remain unclear. Here we show differences and interactions between peripheral and central(More)
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a hypothetical controller for suckling and infancy body weight, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, the present study analysed the mechanisms using mice lacking the CCK-1 receptor (CCK1R-/-). Although CCK1R-/- mice displayed normal weights at birth and adulthood, CCK1R-/- pups had enlarged adipocytes and(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Classic H(1) histamine receptor (H(1)R) antagonists are non-selective for H(1)R and known to produce drowsiness. Modern antihistamines are more selective for H(1)R, and are 'non-drowsy' presumably due to reduced permeability through the blood-brain barrier. To characterize both histaminergic sleep regulation and the central actions of(More)
Cholecystokinin (CCK) and its receptor subtypes CCK-1 and -2 have diverse homeostatic functions. CCK-1 and -2 receptors share a common phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway, yet little is known regarding their possible functional coupling. We focused on CCK-mediated Ca(2+) signaling in parvocellular paraventricular nucleus (PVN) cells, which control(More)
BACKGROUND Circadian rhythms in spontaneous action potential (AP) firing frequencies and in cytosolic free calcium concentrations have been reported for mammalian circadian pacemaker neurons located within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Also reported is the existence of "Ca(2+) spikes" (i.e., [Ca(2+)](c) transients having a bandwidth of 10(More)
The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the central circadian pacemaker in mammals, undergoes serotonergic regulation, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we generated a subclone of an SCN progenitor cell line expressing Ca(2+) sensors (SCN2.2YC) and compared its 5-HT receptor signalling with that of rat SCN neurons in brain slices.(More)
Vertebrate eyes are known to contain circadian clocks, however, the intracellular mechanisms regulating the retinal clockwork remain largely unknown. To address this, we generated a cell line (hRPE-YC) from human retinal pigmental epithelium, which stably co-expressed reporters for molecular clock oscillations (Bmal1-luciferase) and intracellular Ca2+(More)
Clozapine (Clz) and olanzapine (Olz) are second generation (atypical) antipsychotics, used widely for treating schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. These drugs share multiple sites of actions, however their mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here, we analyzed the effects of these drugs on primary cultures of rat cortical astrocytes and C6 glioma(More)
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