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PURPOSE Bitemporal interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) occur in < or =42% of scalp EEGs in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) studied with routine EEGs or partial analysis of long-term recordings. METHODS Twenty-eight patients with TLE demonstrating exclusively unilateral temporal IEDs on routine EEGs underwent 24-h continuous recording. The(More)
The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) is a major integrative site in the brain stem involved in central autonomic control. Several lines of evidence indicate that ATP, acting at P2x purinoceptors, and adenosine, acting at A2a adenosine (P1) purinoceptors, play synchronous roles as transmitter substances in NTS-mediated mechanisms of cardiovascular control.(More)
The purpose of the study was to examine the role of P2 purinergic receptors in mechanisms of cardiovascular control mediated by the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), a major integrative site in the brainstem involved in the reflex coordination of cardiorespiratory and visceral response patterns. Microinjections of ATP and its analogues were made into the(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been shown to be localized in a number of CNS regions, including the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). In this meeting report, a brief overview is presented of recent studies from our laboratory examining the role of NPY in NTS-mediated mechanisms of cardiorespiratory and visceroendocrine regulation. Microinjections of NPY, NPY(More)
In anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats, microinjections of selective agonists of neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor subtypes were made into the medial region of the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) at the level of the area postrema. This region of the rat NTS exhibits very high densities of NPY binding sites. Microinjections of the long(More)
The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) in the dorsal medulla is the principal visceral sensory relay nucleus in the brain. In the rat, numerous lines of evidence indicate that the caudal NTS at the level of the area postrema serves as a major integrating site for coordinating cardiorespiratory reflexes and viscerobehavioral responses. This region of the(More)
Activation of P2x-purinoceptors in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) via microinjection of ATP mimics baroreflex responses (bradycardia, hypotension); however, the physiological role of these receptors in cardiovascular control remains unclear. We tested whether blockade of these receptors attenuates arterial baroreflex control of heart rate (HR).(More)
A limited occipital craniotomy was conducted on anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats to expose the caudal medulla in the region of the obex. Microinjections of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a putative neuromodulator associated with catecholaminergic (CA) synapses, were made into the medial region of the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) at the level of(More)
A limited occipital craniotomy was conducted on urethane-chloralose anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats to expose the caudal medulla in the region of the obex. Microinjections of highly selective agonists for adenosine receptor subtypes were made into the medial region of the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) at the level of the posterior(More)
The authors compared the frequency of paranasal sinus inflammatory changes (SIC) on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) obtained from 23 patients with new onset acute optic neuritis (ON) and 48 control patients who underwent outpatient MRI of the brain for reasons other than ON. The authors found a higher frequency of paranasal SIC in patients with ON(More)