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Web search has become an integral part of our lives and we use it daily for business and pleasure. Unfortunately, however, we unwittingly reveal a huge amount of private information about ourselves when we search the web. A look at a user's search terms over a period of a few months paints a frighteningly clear and detailed picture about the user's life. In(More)
Since designated confirmer signature schemes were introduced by Chaum and formalized by Okamoto, a number of attempts have been made to design efficient and secure designated confirmer signature schemes. Yet, there has been a consistent gap in security claims and analysis between all generic theoretical proposals and any concrete implementation proposal one(More)
Network coding helps maximize the network throughput. However, such schemes are also vulnerable to pollution attacks in which malicious forwarders inject polluted messages into the system. Traditional cryptographic solution, such as digital signatures, are not suited for network coding, in which nodes do not forward the original packets, but rather linear(More)
Communication such as web browsing is often monitored and restricted by organizations and governments. Users who wish to bypass the monitoring and restrictions often relay their (encrypted) communication via proxy servers or anonym zing networks such as Tor. While this type of solution allows users to hide the content of their communication and often bypass(More)
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