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To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary(More)
The transfer of nuclei from one cell to another provides a powerful tool for studying the interactions between the cytoplasm of one cell and the nucleus of another. This study was designed to examine the ability of the bovine metaphase oocyte cytoplasm to support mitotic cell cycles under the direction of differentiated somatic cell nuclei of various(More)
In vitro maturation (IVM) of goat oocytes with serum-supplemented media results in oocytes with reduced developmental potential. The objective of this study was to develop a defined medium for IVM of goat oocytes that better supports subsequent embryonic development. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COC) were matured for 18-20 hr in: Experiment (1), tissue culture(More)
No information is available concerning how the maturation environment controls the metabolism of goat oocytes. The objectives of this experiment were to: (1) Determine the concentrations of glucose, lactate, and pyruvate in caprine follicular fluid; and (2) Investigate the effects of physiological concentrations of glucose and lactate in the in vitro(More)
The objective of this study was to examine the timing and mechanisms involved in transcription initiation in bovine embryos. Transcriptional activity and its regulation were explored by labeling 1-cell zygotes and 2-cell embryos with [(3)H]uridine in the presence or absence of alpha-amanitin, aphidicolin, and tricostatin A (TSA) (inhibitors of mRNA(More)
Early embryonic development is largely dependent on maternal RNAs and proteins synthesised during oogenesis. Zygotic transcription is an essential event that occurs at a species-specific time after fertilization. In the absence of zygotic transcription the embryo dies since it can no longer support requirements for successful embryo development. Molecular(More)
The transition from the maternal to embryonic control of early embryonic development (MET) in mammals is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine the amount of transcriptional activity in immature oocytes containing germinal vesicle (GV), mature metaphase II arrested oocytes (MII), 2-, 4- and 8-cell bovine embryos by labeling with(More)
BACKGROUND Male infertility is a major problem for mammalian reproduction. However, molecular details including the underlying mechanisms of male fertility are still not known. A thorough understanding of these mechanisms is essential for obtaining consistently high reproductive efficiency and to ensure lower cost and time-loss by breeder. RESULTS Using(More)
Global activation of the embryonic genome is the most critical event in early mammalian development. After fertilization, a rich supply of maternal proteins and RNAs support development whereas a number of zygotic and embryonic genes are expressed in a stage-specific manner leading to embryonic genome activation (EGA). However, the identities of embryonic(More)
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), the technique commonly known as cloning, permits transformation of a somatic cell into an undifferentiated zygote with the potential to develop into a newborn animal (i.e., a clone). In somatic cells, chromatin is programmed to repress most genes and express some, depending on the tissue. It is evident that the(More)