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Although it has been shown that Epac1 mRNA is expressed ubiquitously and Epac2 mRNA predominantly in the brain and endocrine tissues, developmental and pathophysiological changes of these molecules have not been characterized. Developmental changes were analyzed in murine heart, brain, kidneys, and lungs by RT-PCR analysis, which revealed more drastic(More)
We investigated the effects of caloric restriction (CR) on growth of tumors and metastases in the 4T1 mammary tumor model and found that CR, compared with normal diet, reduced the growth of mammary tumors and metastases and the total number of metastases that originated both spontaneously from the primary tumor and also experimentally from i.v. injection of(More)
Melanoma has a poor prognosis due to its strong metastatic ability. Although Ca(2+) plays a major role in cell migration, little is known about the role of Ca(2+) in melanoma cell migration. We recently found that the exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP (Epac) increases melanoma cell migration via a heparan sulfate-related mechanism. In(More)
Disruption of adenylyl cyclase type 5 (AC5) knockout (KO) is a novel model for longevity. Because malignancy is a major cause of death and reduced lifespan in mice, the goal of this investigation was to examine the role of AC5KO in protecting against cancer. There have been numerous discoveries in genetically engineered mice over the past several decades,(More)
Melanoma, the most malignant form of human skin cancer, has a poor prognosis due to its strong metastatic ability. It was recently demonstrated that Epac, an effector molecule of cAMP, is involved in regulating cell migration; however, the role of Epac in melanoma cell migration remains unclear. We thus examined whether Epac regulates cell migration and(More)
Despite numerous discoveries from genetically engineered mice, relatively few have been translated to the bedside, mainly because it is difficult to translate from genes to drugs. This investigation examines an antiviral drug, which also has an action to selectively inhibit type 5 adenylyl cyclase (AC5), a pharmaceutical correlate of the AC5 knockout (KO)(More)
Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is a major mechanism of Ca(2) (+) import from extracellular to intracellular space, involving detection of Ca(2+) store depletion in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by stromal interaction molecule (STIM) proteins, which then translocate to plasma membrane and activate Orai Ca(2+) channels there. We found that STIM1 and Orai1(More)
Our previous report suggested the potential role of the exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP (Epac) in melanoma metastasis via heparan sulfate (HS)-mediated cell migration. In order to obtain conclusive evidence that Epac1 plays a critical role in modification of HS and melanoma metastasis, we extensively investigated expression and function of(More)
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) regulates endothelial and melanoma cell migration. The binding of FGF2 to its receptor requires N-sulfated heparan sulfate (HS) glycosamine. We have previously reported that Epac1, an exchange protein activated by cAMP, increases N-sulfation of HS in melanoma. Therefore, we examined whether Epac1 regulates FGF2-mediated(More)