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Previous studies have shown that intracortical activity can be used to operate prosthetic devices such as an artificial limb. Previously used neuronal signals were either the activity of tens to hundreds of spiking neurons, which are difficult to record for long periods of time, or local field potentials, which are highly correlated with each other. Here,(More)
Low intensity electric fields have been suggested to affect the ongoing neuronal activity in vitro and in human studies. However, the physiological mechanism of how weak electrical fields affect and interact with intact brain activity is not well understood. We performed in vivo extracellular and intracellular recordings from the neocortex and hippocampus(More)
Correlated neural activity has been observed at various signal levels (e.g., spike count, membrane potential, local field potential, EEG, fMRI BOLD). Most of these signals can be considered as superpositions of spike trains filtered by components of the neural system (synapses, membranes) and the measurement process. It is largely unknown how the spike(More)
Neostriatal cholinergic interneurons are believed to be important for reinforcement-mediated learning and response selection by signaling the occurrence and motivational value of behaviorally relevant stimuli through precisely timed multiphasic population responses. An important problem is to understand how these signals regulate the functioning of the(More)
Neural activity has been studied during reaching and grasping separately, yet little is known about their combined representation. To study the functional organization of reaching and grasping in the premotor cortex (PM), we trained two monkeys to reach in one of six directions and grasp one of three objects. During prehensile movements, activity of(More)
High-frequency ripple oscillations, observed most prominently in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal layer, are associated with memory consolidation. The cellular and network mechanisms underlying the generation, frequency control, and spatial coherence of the rhythm are poorly understood. Using multisite optogenetic manipulations in freely behaving rodents, we(More)
Previous studies have suggested that several types of rules govern the generation of complex arm movements. One class of rules consists of optimizing an objective function (e.g., maximizing motion smoothness). Another class consists of geometric and kinematic constraints, for instance the coupling between speed and curvature during drawing movements as(More)
Neuronal control with high temporal precision is possible with optogenetics, yet currently available methods do not enable to control independently multiple locations in the brains of freely moving animals. Here, we describe a diode-probe system that allows real-time and location-specific control of neuronal activity at multiple sites. Manipulation of(More)
The relationship between neuropsychological impairments and changes in cranial MR images was investigated in a group of 74 consecutive patients with the sporadic form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Neuropsychological tests included measures of frontal lobe function, memory, intelligence, and attention. Compared with a control group, a significant(More)
MS in juvenile patients under the age of 16 occurred in 31 (5%) of our whole MS population of 620 patients in the time from 1975-1991. It does not differ clinically from the disease as observed in 72 patients with later onset MS in respect to symptoms at onset, course, progression rate, rate of relapses and abnormalities in CSF and MRI. However, fever,(More)