Eppie D. Rael

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The venom composition of Mojave rattlesnakes (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus) differs in that some individuals have Mojave toxin and others do not. In order to understand the genetic basis for this difference, genomic DNA samples from Mojave rattlesnakes collected in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas were analyzed for the presence of DNA sequences that relate(More)
Membrane-active toxins from snake venom have been used previously to study protein-lipid interactions and to probe the physical and biochemical states of biomembranes. To extend these studies, we have isolated from Naja naja kaowthia (cobra) venom a cytotoxin free of detectable phospholipase A2 (PLA2). The amino acid composition, pI (10.2), and net charge(More)
The hydrolytic activity and interaction of acidic and neutral phospholipase A2 (PLA2) with large unilamellar liposomes treated with cobra venom cytotoxin Vc5 (CT Vc5) were studied to more fully understand the modulating effects of cationic membrane-active peptides on PLA2. Studies were done by fluorescence displacement, EPR spin probes, and 31P-NMR. The(More)
To determine the influence of variations in both lipid species and lipid packing on phospholipase A2 (PLA2) hydrolytic activity, the activities of two PLA2 isolated from Crotalus molossus molossus venom, were followed on unilamellar liposomes modified by membrane-active peptides. Enzymatic activity was compared with cytolytic activity on human and mouse(More)
Mojave toxin (MT) was detected in five of 25 Crotalus helleri (Southern Pacific rattlesnake) sampled using anti-MT antibodies and nucleotide sequence analysis. All of the venoms that were positive for MT were collected from Mt San Jacinto in Riverside Co., California. Since this population is geographically isolated from C. scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave(More)
Snake venom toxins are responsible for causing severe pathology and toxicity following envenomation including necrosis, apoptosis, neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, cardiotoxicity, profuse hemorrhage, and disruption of blood homeostasis. Clinically, snake venom toxins therefore represent a significant hazard to snakebite victims which underscores the need to(More)
Two phospholipases A2 of mol. wt 14,500 (P1) and 14,400 (P2) and pI 9.2 and 7.4 respectively were isolated from Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus venom. The two isoenzymes cross-reacted immunologically with phospholipase A2 from C. adamanteus and C, atrox, but not with Mojave toxin, excluding them as the basic subunit of the Mojave toxin complex. C. s.(More)
M4, a fibrinolytic protease, was isolated from the venom of Crotalus molossus molossus. It has a pI of 9.6 and a molecular weight of 27,000. The protease hydrolyzes the A alpha and B beta chains of fibrinogen, and the alpha and beta chains of fibrin. This activity was inhibited by EDTA and restored by Ca2+ or Zn2+, but not Mg2+. The protease hydrolyzed hide(More)
The membrane-active peptide,Pyrularia thionin, purified fromPyrularia pubera, was covalently conjugated to an anti-CD5 monoclonal antibody. The membrane-active properties of thionin were not affected by the conjugation. The immunotoxin killed CD5+ lymphocytes in vitro at a concentration of 0.1 nmol/107 cells after 2 h of incubation. The immunotoxin also(More)
Using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-streptavidin, quartz fibre-immobilized antibody (FiAb) and the evanescent wave component of a light beam, detection of Botulinum Toxin-B (BoTX) is described. Exposure of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane/glutaraldehyde (APTS/GA) treated quartz fibres to increasing amounts of anti-BoTX Ab indicated toxin binding to increase(More)