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An ELISA was developed to determine the reactivity of peroxidase labelled Protein A and a recombinant Protein A + Protein G construct, to sera from a variety of laboratory, domestic and wild animals from Africa. There was variability in the binding capacity of sera from individuals of the same species, but four groups could be recognized. Sera from birds(More)
Two established immunodiagnostic techniques, immunofluorescence and indirect haemagglutination, were compared with ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) using intact promastigotes as antigen for the detection of specific antibodies against Leishmania in the serum of patients with visceral or mucosal leishmaniasis from the Sudan. The ELISA was found to(More)
A skin test survey was conducted among 1035 children aged 7-19 years living in three cities in Vietnam. Fifteen new tuberculins, including leprosin-A, were applied; an induration of 2 mm diameter or more was considered positive. Compared to some other tropical countries, low levels of sensitisation were recorded and remarkable regional differences were(More)
The advantages of outcome-based education for medical students have been recognised for several years and in several countries. Until recently in Vietnam, as in many countries, the curriculum for medical doctors was a broad framework that individual teachers filled in according to their own ideas and experience. During the past few years, the main eight(More)
BACKGROUND The eight main Vietnamese medical schools recently cooperated to produce a book listing the knowledge, attitudes and skills expected of a graduate, including specification of the required level for each skill. The teaching program should ensure that students can reach that level. The objective of this study was to determine the perception of(More)
BACKGROUND As part of the process to develop more community-oriented medical teaching in Vietnam, eight medical schools prepared a set of standard learning objectives with attention to the needs of a doctor working with the community. Because they were prepared based on government documents and the opinions of the teachers, it was necessary to check them(More)
A 66-year-old man presented with arthritis of the right knee of 3 months' duration. Cytologic examination of synovial fluid (SF) showed numerous lipid laden macrophages. Radiographs and a nuclear scintigram established the presence of a fracture of the lateral tibial plateau. The diagnostic significance of lipid laden macrophages in SF is reviewed.
Infections with Leishmania parasites are initiated by bites from infected sandflies; the injected promastigotes are attacked by phagocytic cells but succeed in entering cells of the macrophage family and surviving in them. The secrets of the success of the extracellular form in penetrating the host cell and of the intracellular form in surviving in a(More)
An animal model of ureterosigmoidostomy was employed to elucidate the etiology of urinary intestinal anastomotic cancer. One hundred ninety-four rats were divided into five groups: vesicosigmoidostomy rats fed water without drug (controls); those fed ammonium chloride, or sodium bicarbonate, or ascorbic acid; and, finally, vesicosigmoid interposition rats.(More)
The health care system in Vietnam has long been cited as an example of primary health care that has worked well. The achievements of the system during the past decades have indeed been impressive, but the changing economic situation in Vietnam has consequences for all public sector activities, including health care. Liberalization of economic policies has(More)