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—Designers face many system optimization problems when building distributed systems. Traditionally, designers have relied on optimization techniques that require either prior knowledge or centrally managed runtime knowledge of the system's environment, but such techniques are not viable in dynamic networks where topology, resource, and node availability are(More)
The lateral division of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEAl) and the oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTov) have been linked closely anatomically and functionally. To determine whether these regions may be subdivided further on a neurochemical basis, dual in situ hybridization was used to determine the colocalization of(More)
Colocalization of proenkephalin and prodynorphin mRNAs with each other as well as with D1, D2, and D3 dopamine receptor mRNAs was analyzed in the nucleus accumbens of the rat. Distinct combinations were detected in the rostral pole, core, and shell subdivisions of the nucleus accumbens. Proenkephalin and prodynorphin mRNAs were principally localized in(More)
Amphetamine-, cocaine-, and morphine-induced c-fos expression patterns were examined following an injection protocol that has previously been shown to produce behavioral sensitization and enhanced dopamine release in the striatal complex. Drug-specific c-fos patterns were observed in both acute and sensitization injection paradigms. A sensitization(More)
While different classes of abused drugs interact with distinct signaling substrates, it appears that all utilize receptors in the mesolimbic dopamine system to mediate their reinforcing effects. The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins modulate G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling by increasing the rate of GTP hydrolysis of G proteins.(More)
Following unilateral striatal dopamine depletion, the hemiparkinsonian rat exhibits rotational behavior in response to amphetamine and apomorphine. The rotational behaviors induced by these drugs are thought to reflect an asymmetry in presynaptic striatal dopamine release and an asymmetry in postsynaptic striatal dopamine receptor function, respectively.(More)
Intraventricular adrenal medulla grafts were found to produce dissociable effects on rotational behavior induced by amphetamine and apomorphine in rats with unilateral striatal dopamine depletions. Some animals showed a decrease in the behavioral response to apomorphine, some showed a decrease to amphetamine, and some showed a decrease to both amphetamine(More)