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BACKGROUND Identifying patients in the immunosuppressive phase of sepsis is essential for development of immunomodulatory therapies. Little data exists comparing the ability of the two most well-studied markers of sepsis-induced immunosuppression, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha(More)
Maternal cigarette smoking is known to disrupt placental growth and function. The polyaromatic hydrocarbon benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a major toxicant in cigarette smoke that has been shown to alter placental cell function. This study compared the effects of the benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the prototype ligand for the(More)
BACKGROUND Despite appropriate therapy, Candida bloodstream infections are associated with a mortality rate of approximately 40%. In animal models, impaired immunity due to T cell exhaustion has been implicated in fungal sepsis mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine potential mechanisms of fungal-induced immunosuppression via(More)
OBJECTIVE We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the accuracy of bedside ultrasound for confirmation of central venous catheter position and exclusion of pneumothorax compared with chest radiography. DATA SOURCES PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists, conference proceedings and(More)
BACKGROUND Analgesia and sedation are cornerstone therapies for mechanically ventilated patients. Despite data showing that early deep sedation in the intensive care unit influences outcome, this has not been investigated in the emergency department (ED). Therefore, ED-based sedation practices, and their influence on outcome, remain incompletely defined.(More)
Nutritional protein may decrease levodopa absorption and has resulted in withdrawal and neuroleptic malignant-like syndromes in critically ill patients. A 72-year-old male was admitted with shortness of breath. His medical history included Parkinson's disease for over 30 years for which he took carbidopa/levodopa 5 times daily. The patient's home(More)