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The cerebral glutamate system and NMDA-mediated glutamate transmission are known to play main roles in processes related to cognitive skills and emotional responses. The impact of the physical environment on emotional responses and the role of NMDA-mediated glutamate transmission in this interaction remain unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the(More)
The aim of the present study was to determine the involvement of the median raphe serotonergic system in the effects of ketamine on anxiety behaviours and related memory. The effects of ketamine pretreatment (3 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) on three types of fear-motivated behaviours, unconditioned one-way escape, conditioned avoidance and freezing were tested.(More)
Pre- and early postnatal stress can cause dysfunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) and thereby promote the development of hippocampus memory-dependent schizoid abnormalities of navigation in space, time, and knowledge. An enriched environment improves mental abilities in humans and animals. Whether an enriched environment can prevent the(More)
The brain serotonin is involved in mediation of emotional behaviour including anxiety and related fear conditioning. It is known that the median raphe nucleus (MRN) is the origin of a serotonergic pathway and mainly innervates septo-hippocampal formation which plays an important role in emotional cognition. However, its regulatory role in different types of(More)
In the present study, the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5) bilaterally infused into the dorsal hippocampus (2.0 microl /5 microg), on the retrieval of fear memory to partial and whole foreground cues were evaluated by using a step-through passive avoidance and Pavlovian fear(More)
In this study, we evaluated the effect of ketamine on exploratory locomotion behaviours in the Balb/c and C57BL/6 strains of mice, which differ in their locomotion behaviours. Intraperitoneal administration of ketamine at three different doses (1, 5 or 10 mg/kg, 0.1 ml/10 gr body weight) was performed on adult male Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice. The same volume(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of excitotoxic damage of the serotonergic cell bodies in the median raphe nucleus (MRN) on the scopolamine-induced working memory deficits in a single-trial light/dark inhibitory avoidance task. Rats were given 1 mg/kg of scopolamine hydrobromide (intraperitonal, i.p.) or saline before the(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play an important role in brain maturation and developmental processes. It is known that growing up in an enriched environment has effects on emotional and cognitive performance. In our study, we evaluated the effects of physically enriched environment on the emotional and cognitive functions of the adult brain in the(More)
The interactions between the median raphe nucleus (MRN) serotonergic system and the septohippocampal muscarinic cholinergic system in the modulation of immediate working memory storage performance were investigated. Rats with sham or ibotenic acid lesions of the MRN were bilaterally implanted with cannulae in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and tested(More)
Although N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors of the hippocampus are mainly associated with learning and memory that might occur "on-line" during sharp waves (SPWs) and theta-rhythm, the participation of hippocampal NMDA receptors in sleep-related processes has not been well studied. In this study, the activity of sleep episodes, hippocampal SPWs and(More)