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In this paper, a new design for microstrip antenna element with U-shaped rectangular patch for sectored coverage of base station antennas of 900 MHz system is proposed for improving antenna performance in terms of gain and bandwidth. A superstrate or dielectric cover is used to protect the patch against environmental hazard. We have present also another(More)
Given the proven benefits cell densification brings in terms of capacity and coverage, it is certain that 5G networks will be even more heterogeneous and dense. However, as smaller cells are introduced in the network, interference will inevitably become a serious problem as they are expected to share the same radio resources. Another central feature(More)
Determination of exposure levels is considered as one of the parameters of planning and optimization of green cellular networks. While moving towards 5G technology and standardization, the results of comparative exposure levels induced by 2G, 3G and 4G networks are of interest. We present the results of in-situ determination of downlink signal levels(More)
Exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields has raised scientific and public concern regarding possible adverse effects to people exposed to such radiation. At cellular mobile communication frequencies, the most important parameter used to assess human exposure to electromagnetic fields is SAR (Specific Absorption Rate). This paper will firstly(More)
In this paper we have propose wide beamwidth and matched microstrip antenna element with U-shaped rectangular patch for sectored coverage of base station antennas of 900 MHz system. A superstrate or dielectric cover is used to protect the patch against environmental hazard or if a naturally occurring dielectric such as ice is formed on top of the cover, the(More)
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