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BACKGROUND The development of cancer has been associated with epigenetic alterations such as aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity. It was recently reported that valproic acid is an effective inhibitor of histone deacetylases and as such induces tumor cell differentiation, apoptosis, or growth arrest. METHODS Twelve newly diagnosed patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Epigenetic aberrations lead to chemotherapy resistance; hence, their reversal by inhibitors of DNA methylation and histone deacetylases may overcome it. PATIENTS AND METHODS Phase II, single-arm study of hydralazine and magnesium valproate added to the same schedule of chemotherapy on which patients were progressing. Schedules comprised(More)
BACKGROUND Among the epigenetic alterations occurring in cancer, DNA hypermethylation and histone hypoacetylation are the focus of intense research because their pharmacological inhibition has shown to produce antineoplastic activity in a variety of experimental models. The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined antineoplastic effect of the(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to evaluate the demethylating and tumor suppressor-reactivating activity of hydralazine and procainamide. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN MDA-231, MCF-7, and T24 cell lines were treated for 5 days with 10 micro M hydralazine or 10 micro M procainamide. 5-aza-deoxycytidine at 0.75 micro M was used as positive control. BALB/c nu/nu(More)
It is known that cell-free DNA circulates in plasma/serum of patients with cancer and that part of this DNA circulates as nucleosomes that can be quantified by ELISA. We analyzed the effect of tumor and chemotherapy upon the levels of nucleosomes in vitro, in vivo and in cervical cancer patients. The levels of nucleosomes pre- and post-treatment were(More)
It is known that cancer progresses by vertical gene transfer, but this paradigm ignores that DNA circulates in higher organisms and that it is biologically active upon its uptake by recipient cells. Here we confirm previous observations on the ability of cell-free DNA to induce in vitro cell transformation and tumorigenesis by treating NIH3T3 recipient(More)
Among many anticancer drugs collectively named "targeted or molecular therapies" epigenetic drugs are clearly promising. Differently from other agents targeting a single gene product, epigenetic drugs have chromatin as their target through inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) therefore, yet unspecific, they may act(More)
Decitabine and azacitidine, two DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors, are the current standard of treatment for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are also being tested against MDS. Both drug classes synergize in their gene reactivating and anticancer activities. The combination of hydralazine and valproate(More)
Aberrant DNA methylation and histone deacetylation participate in cancer development and progression; hence, their reversal by inhibitors of DNA methylation and histone deacetylases is a promising cancer therapy. Experimental data demonstrate that these inhibitors in combination do not only show synergy in antitumor effects but also in whole genome global(More)
BACKGROUND The antihypertensive compound hydralazine is a known demethylating agent. This phase I study evaluated the tolerability and its effects upon DNA methylation and gene reactivation in patients with untreated cervical cancer. METHODS Hydralazine was administered to cohorts of 4 patients at the following dose levels: I) 50 mg/day, II) 75 mg/day,(More)