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The substrate specificity of acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (EC 3.1.2.14) determines the fatty acids available for the biosynthesis of storage and membrane lipids in seeds. In order to determine the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus L.), we isolated, cloned and sequenced a cDNA clone(More)
During sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seed formation there was an active period of lipid biosynthesis between 12 and 28 days after flowering (DAF). The maximum in-vitro acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase activities (EC 3.1.2.14) were found at 15 DAF, preceding the largest accumulation of lipid in the seed. Data from the apparent kinetic(More)
The provision of carbon substrates and reducing power for fatty acid synthesis in the heterotrophic plastids of developing embryos of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been investigated. Profiles of oil and storage protein accumulation were determined and embryos at 17 and 24 days after anthesis (DAA) were selected to represent early and late periods of(More)
Although plant plastidial omega3-desaturases are closely related to microsomal desaturases, heterologous expression in yeast of the Helianthus annuus FAD7 omega3-desaturase showed low activity in contrast to similar expression of microsomal FAD3 omega3-desaturases. However, the removal of the plastidial transit peptide and the incorporation of a KKNL motif(More)
Enoyl-[acyl carrier protein]-reductases from sunflower. A major factor contributing to the amount of fatty acids in plant oils are the first steps of their synthesis. The intraplastidic fatty acid biosynthetic pathway in plants is catalysed by type II fatty acid synthase (FAS). The last step in each elongation cycle is carried out by the(More)
Sphingolipids are components of plant cell membranes that participate in the regulation of important physiological processes. Unlike their animal counterparts, plant sphingolipids are characterized by high levels of base C4-hydroxylation. Moreover, desaturation at the Δ8 position predominates over the Δ4 desaturation typically found in animal sphingolipids.(More)
The triacylglycerol (TAG) composition of oils from new high-saturated sunflower lines has been studied by means of GLC. The TAG profiles have been compared with the TAG reconstruction made after lipase hydrolysis (according to the 2-random 1,3-random theory). New TAG species with asclepic (cis,Delta11-octadecenoic acid, isomer of oleic acid), araquidic, or(More)
A full-length hexokinase cDNA, HaHXK1, was cloned and characterized from Helianthus annuus L. developing seeds. Based on its sequence and phylogenetic relationships, HaHXK1 is a membrane-associated (type-B) hexokinase. The predicted structural model resembles known hexokinase structures, folding into two domains of unequal size: a large and a small one(More)
Sunflower mutant lines with high saturated fatty acid content (palmitic or stearic) in the oil have a completely different set of triacylglycerols (TAG), some of which were not found in standard sunflowers. For optimum seed germination, all of these new TAG species must be effectively catabolized. The behavior of the TAG composition during germination in(More)
Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are enzymes that terminate the intraplastidial fatty acid synthesis in plants by hydrolyzing the acyl-ACP intermediates and releasing free fatty acids to be incorporated into glycerolipids. These enzymes are classified in two families, FatA and FatB, which differ in amino acid sequence and substrate specificity.(More)