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Extracellular signalling by the purine nucleotide ATP has long been associated with sensory function. In the periphery, ATP mediates nociception, mechanosensitivity, thermal sensitivity and O2 chemosensitivity. These processes share a common mechanism that involves the release of ATP to excite afferent fibres via activation of ionotropic P2X and/or(More)
P2X2 receptor subunits of the ATP-gated ion channels are expressed by physiologically identified respiratory neurons in the ventral respiratory column, implicating ATP in the control of respiratory activity. We now show that, during hypoxia, release of ATP in the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) plays an important role in the hypoxic ventilatory response in(More)
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an essential role in the normal development of the underlying neural retina, but the mechanisms by which this regulation occurs are largely unknown. Ca2+ transients, induced by the neurotransmitter ATP acting on purinergic receptors, both increase proliferation and stimulate DNA synthesis in neural retinal(More)
We have used improved miniaturized adenosine biosensors to measure adenosine release during hypoxia from within the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. These microelectrode biosensors record from the extracellular space in the vicinity of active synapses as they detect the synaptic field potentials evoked in area CA1 by stimulation of the afferent(More)
The purines ATP, ADP, and adenosine are important extracellular signaling agents. Analysis of purinergic signaling has been slowed by lack of direct methods for measurement of purine release in real-time during physiological activity. We have previously reported microelectrode biosensors for adenosine, but similar sensors for ATP have remained elusive. We(More)
Receptors for extracellular ATP (both ionotropic and metabotropic) are widely expressed in the CNS both in neurones and glia. ATP can modulate neuronal activity in many parts of the brain and contributes to the central nervous control of several physiological functions. Here we show that during the systemic inflammatory response the extracellular(More)
The Breuer-Hering inflation reflex is initiated by activation of the slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptor afferents (SARs), which monosynaptically activate second-order relay neurones in the dorsal medullary nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Here we demonstrate that during lung inflation SARs release both ATP and glutamate from their central(More)
Chemical signalling underlies every function of the nervous system, from those of which we are unaware, for example, control of the heart, to higher cognitive functions, such as emotions, learning and memory. Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators mediate communication between neurons and between neurons and non-neural cells such as glia and muscle. In the(More)
Adenosine is a powerful modulator of neuronal function in the mammalian central nervous system. During a variety of insults to the brain, adenosine is released in large quantities and exerts a neuroprotective influence largely via the A(1) receptor, which inhibits glutamate release and neuronal activity. Using novel enzyme-based adenosine sensors, which(More)
Adenosine is well known to be released during cerebral metabolic stress and is believed to be neuroprotective. ATP release under similar circumstances has been much less studied. We have now used biosensors to measure and compare in real time the release of ATP and adenosine during in vitro ischaemia in hippocampal slices. ATP release only occurred(More)