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OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical and radiological response of chronic calcific tendinitis of the shoulder to extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in a single blind study. METHODS 70 patients showing chronic, symptomatic, calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder were examined. A single blind randomised study was performed with 35 patients undergoing a(More)
BACKGROUND Cannabinoids modulate fibrogenesis in scleroderma. Ajulemic acid (AjA) is a non-psychoactive synthetic analogue of tetrahydrocannabinol that can bind the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Recent evidence suggests a key role for PPAR-γ in fibrogenesis. OBJECTIVE To determine whether AjA can modulate fibrogenesis in murine(More)
Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, associated with deficiency of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase activity in the liver. This leads to an accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA) and its oxidized derivatives in polymerized form in connective tissues especially in joints. Currently, AKU lacks an appropriate therapy. Hence, we propose a new(More)
OBJECTIVES Evidence exists that the pleiotropic properties of the hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl Coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) are not restricted to the cardiovascular system, as they can also favorably affect the joints, with intriguing implications for the treatment of many rheumatic diseases. In the view of the increasing interest on this topic, we(More)
Alkaptonuria (AKU) results from defective homogentisate1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), causing degenerative arthropathy. The deposition of ochronotic pigment in joints is so far attributed to homogentisic acid produced by the liver, circulating in the blood and accumulating locally. Human normal and AKU osteoarticular cells were tested for HGD gene expression by(More)
Alkaptonuria (AKU) is an ultra-rare disease developed from the lack of homogentisic acid oxidase activity, causing homogentisic acid (HGA) accumulation that produces a HGA-melanin ochronotic pigment, of unknown composition. There is no therapy for AKU. Our aim was to verify if AKU implied a secondary amyloidosis. Congo Red, Thioflavin-T staining and TEM(More)
OBJECTIVE Substance P (SP), a neurotransmitter stored within the afferent nociceptive fibers, is likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of musculoskeletal pain. We investigated SP immunoreactive (SP-ir) nerve fibers in the upper trapezius of patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) by immunochemistry. METHODS Trapezius muscle(More)
Human type B synoviocytes are involved in joint injury during rheumatic diseases by producing inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). The increased level of purine and pirimidine nucleotides in the synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients could activate the large family of P2 receptors. Thus, we investigated the presence of P2(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe the clinical presentation and course of a relatively large group of Italian adult patients screened for mutation of the homogentisate dioxygenase gene causing alkaptonuria (AKU) and ochronosis, and to review typical and atypical facets of this condition. METHODS We reviewed the medical records of 9 patients affected by ochronotic(More)
Hyperhomocysteinemia is independently associated with the development of coronary, cerebral and peripheral vascular disease and deep-vein thrombosis in the general population. The evidence that cardiovascular involvement is particularly frequent and advanced in patients affected with several autoimmune diseases (AD), in which hyperhomocysteinemia represent(More)