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The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) proposes to make the validation process more flexible, while maintaining its high standards. The various aspects of validation are broken down into independent modules, and the information necessary to complete each module is defined. The data required to assess test validity in an(More)
Stem cells are a key target of environmental toxicants, but little is known about their toxicological responses. We aimed at developing an in-vitro model based on adult human stem cells to identify biomarkers of heavy metal exposure. To this end we investigated the responses of human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells to hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) and(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to investigate the possible pathogenetic role of myocardial trace elements (TE) in patients with various forms of cardiac failure. BACKGROUND Both myocardial TE accumulation and deficiency have been associated with the development of heart failure indistinguishable from an idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS Myocardial and(More)
This paper presents an organized system for element-specific sample collection and handling of human blood (whole blood, serum or plasma, packed cells or erythrocytes) and urine also indicating a proper definition of the subject and sample. Harmonized procedures for collection, preparation, analysis and quality control are suggested. The aim is to assist(More)
Radiochemical neutron activation analysis has been used to determine the concentration of 36 elements in neuromelanin, 22 elements in substantia nigra, and 32 elements in putamen of healthy subjects without signs of neurological disorders. Substantia nigra and putamen tissues were carefully dissected from the brain using special surgical instruments and(More)
Neutron activation analysis-electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETA-AAS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) have been used for the determination of 46 elements in urine, 35 in blood and 26 in serum of unexposed Italian subjects living in the same region (Lombardy). The results allowed the proposal of reference(More)
Cytotoxicity, morphological neoplastic transformation, cellular uptake and metabolic reduction were determined in BALB/3T3 Cl A31-1-1 cells for trivalent arsenic (sodium arsenite, As3+) and for pentavalent arsenic (sodium arsenate, As5+). The levels of cellular uptake of 73As-labelled sodium arsenite and arsenate were dose-dependent and highest in the first(More)
Biological monitoring of Co, Ta and W, using mainly neutron activation analysis, was carried out on the urine, blood, pubic hair and toe nails of 251 subjects occupationally exposed to hard metal dusts (23 individuals were diagnosed as 'diseased subjects', affected by asthma and/or lung fibrosis). Airborne dust at hard metal workplaces were also analyzed(More)
Cytotoxicity and morphological transformation has been studied in BALB/3T3 Cl A31-1-1 mouse embryo cells for ammonium vanadate [vanadium(V)] and vanadyl sulphate [vanadium(IV)] alone or in combination with diethylmaleate (DEM), a cellular glutathione (GSH)-depleting agent. Cells exposed for 24 h to 10(-5) M vanadium(V) alone or in combination with 3 x(More)